Babichev was born on April 16, 1916 in the village of Petropavlovsk, Astrakhan region, in a working-class family. Member of the CPSU since 1943. He graduated from primary school, then worked as a tractor driver at the Vladimir machine-tractor station. In the Soviet Army from 1937 to 1940 and from September 1941.
In the front of the Great Patriotic War from March 1942, Babichev was the gun commander of the 125th separate fighter-anti-tank artillery division of the 29th Rifle Division, 6th Guards Army, 1st Baltic Front. July 5, 1944, when repelling an enemy counterattack near the village of Tychki (Miorsky district, Vitebsk region) Petty Officer Babichev destroyed 2 machine guns, 4 motorcycles and killed dozens of Hitlerites with gunfire. When the battery was surrounded by the enemy, Babichev raised the calculation to attack. Being seriously wounded, he remained in the ranks. The title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded on March 24, 1945. Since 1945, Babichev has been in reserve. He died on March 23, 1983 in Akhtubinsk.
After the second partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1793, Catherine II presented Lonka to Prince Frolov. The most famous was his descendant, Adjutant General and Senator Ilya Stepanovich Frolov. He was born on July 20, 1808. In 1826, he graduated from the famous Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum with a gold medal. To make a career, he entered the military service. He showed himself well in the Russian-Turkish war of 1827-1828. But he showed himself most, like all the Russian military of that time, in suppressing the national liberation movement and expanding the borders of the empire. So, in 1830-1831, he took part in the suppression of the uprising in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus, distinguished himself in the Battle of Astralentsa and the capture of Warsaw. Nicholas I marked I. Frolov with the Order of St. Nicholas.Anna of the 3rd century with swords and the Order of St.Vladimir V. s-bows. When the revolution began in Hungary, already in the rank of major general in the 3rd corps of the Russian army, he suppressed the freedom of the Hungarian people. And here he became famous at the capture of the cities of Voitsen and Debrecen, where he showed personal courage, leading an attack of a cavalry regiment on an infantry square under artillery fire. In 1854-1855, he took part in the war against Turkey, for the siege of the fortress of Silistria, he received the rank of adjutant general, then promoted to Lieutenant General. I. S. Frolov took part in the work of the Vilnius Commission on the abolition of serfdom. When the uprising led by Kastus Kalinouski exploded in Belarus, he was appointed deputy commander of the Vilnius Military District. And again, his merits are noted. In 1864, he became a senator, was included in the lists of the General Staff, and joined the retinue of Tsar Alexander II. In the Senate, he first works in the land survey department, and then in the heralds. In addition, he was engaged in science, contributed to the collection «On Agriculture for the middle Zone of Russia», which was published in 1875. He died at his Lonka estate on August 17, 1879. The monument on his grave has survived to our time.
Vitaly Gordilovsky was born on January 29, 1912. This, and also that his father, like his grandfather Stefan, served as psalmists of the Cheressy church, is evidenced by the metrical book of the St. Nicholas Church for 1912. In many articles about Gordilovsky, the wrong year of birth is 1909.
In 1914, the peasant life of his parents Alexander Stepanovich and Elizaveta Fyodorovna Gordilovsky from ancient Cheressy suddenly changed. The First World War began. Alexander Gordilovsky went to the active army at the front. The wounded man was taken to a hospital in Vyazma, where, after recovering, he got a job at a railway station. I also moved my family here from Belarus.
In 1927, Gordilovsky’s son Vitaly successfully completed the seven-year course and decided to follow his father’s path – to become a railway worker. He began as a simple worker at the Vyazma station, and in 1929 he entered the Moscow Technical School of Railways, which he graduated with excellent marks three years later. In August 1933, as a member of the special forces party of the Central Committee of the UKP(b), he was drafted into the army and sent to Sevastopol to the 1st Red Banner Kachinsky School of Pilots named after Myasnikov, which trained personnel for fighter aviation. Later, they were transferred to the city of Engels, to the 14th pilot school, where they trained pilots for bomber aviation. He graduated from flight school among the best and in December 1935 received the right to fly the R-6 airship in the elite 5th squadron, based at the headquarters of the Belarusian Military District in Smolensk. The R-6 aircraft was a “novelty ” at that time, after testing it was launched into the series as a long-range reconnaissance aircraft, bomber escort and air combat.
One of the first Vitaly Gordilovsky was assigned to master the new high-speed bomber SB (ONT-40), which has just entered service. The most mass-produced production aircraft developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau. And in April 1938, Lieutenant Gordilovsky was appointed a flight commander in the neighboring 4th squadron. Two months later, despite the excellent certification, the lack of penalties, he was dismissed to the reserve “for official non-compliance” without any explanation. In May 1940. Vitaly Alexandrovich was summoned to the military enlistment office and sent to Ivanovo, to the 165th reserve aviation regiment, where he again received the right to take the helm with the same former repressed. The war for Lieutenant Gordilovsky began on June 22 at 12 hours 8 minutes, when he, as part of one of the three nine bombers of the SB, rose into the sky and headed for Suvalki – to bombard the German airfield near Lake Serva. The crew from the first sortie, which lasted 3 hours and 46 minutes, returned unharmed. Until July 20, after a month of fighting in the skies of Belarus, only two of the 173 SB aircraft of the 13th Division remained in working condition. The losses in the flight crew also became large. Gordilovsky, like the other pilots who survived, was sent to the Kazan Aircraft Factory to master a new dive bomber. The management also noted the success in mastering the “alien ” on the spot. He was appointed a flight instructor and taught all the pilots of the 125th regiment on the B-25. Here is what is said in his attestation for 1942: “The new B-25 aircraft blade mastered with excellent performance, and successfully coped with the tasks of training the flight crew for night flights.” It was night, because the regiment was transferred to the long-range aviation and its main purpose was night raids and bombing behind enemy lines. In December 1942, the commander of the 125th regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Ulianovsky, reported: “The controlled Comrade. The Gordilovsky squadron is the leading one in the regiment. Hatred of fascism is combined with high tactical literacy and proper use of the B-25 aircraft.” Gordilovsky also has a peculiar record: the squadron under his command made 800 sorties, as the document says, “without having a single case of losses in people and material.” During the war, this is just fantastic. On May 17, Gordilovsky was appointed commander of a long-range bombardment regiment, which he also needed to form. On June 4, 1944, this regiment had already made its first combat sortie. We flew to bomb enemy targets in Baranovichi, Brest, and Gomel. For their heroism in the liberation of Minsk, they received another commendation from the Supreme Commander-in-Chief Joseph Stalin. Gordilovsky led his regiment to bomb enemy targets in Poland and Slovakia. After five months of participation in the battles, the regiment of Lieutenant Colonel Gordilovsky was awarded the highest military mark – it became the Guards. At the final stage of the war, the combat objectives of Gordilovsky’s “Mitchals” were the bombing of Konigsberg, Budapest, Galac, Morava-ostrov, Kotowitz, Frankfurt an der Oder, Danzig, Breslau, Swinemunde. For the most resistant enemy groups in Konigsberg and Breslau, Gordilovsky had to perform five sorties in daylight for the first time with the entire regiment’s composition on the “Mitchals”. The war was drawing to a close. The troops were preparing for the final battle of Berlin. The commander of the 18th Air Force, Chief Marshal Alexander Golovanov, came up with the idea to send a special signal for the beginning of the assault on the capital of Nazi Germany. It was decided to do this with the help of special signal light bombs TSASAB-100, adopted in the summer of 1944. The torches of these bombs, descending by parachute, burned for 10 minutes with a bright red fire, visible from a distance of 90 km.
The choice of command fell on the 4th Guards Gomel Air Corps of the Guards of Lieutenant General Georgy Shchetchikov, whose pilots flew on American “Mitchal” bombers. Shchetchikov ordered the commander of the 250th Guards Regiment of this division of the Guard, Lieutenant Colonel Vitaly Gordilovsky, to perform this combat task. After dropping the TSASAB bombs over the Zelovsky Heights, the Red Army’s offensive against Berlin began. In the skies of war, Gordilovsky made 137 successful sorties. Shot down two German fighters. He was awarded four orders. Twice, in June 1943 and in August 1944, he was presented to the Order of Lenin and both times did not receive it. Most likely, because of the stain of the repressed and because he was not held in high esteem by the leadership (did not curry favor with him). Until 1951, Gordilovsky was appointed commander of his native 250th Guards regiment, all on the same “Mitchals”. He graduated with excellent marks from the Higher Officer Flight and Tactical School of Commanders and in September 1952 graduated from the He was transferred to Baranovichi as deputy commander of the 45th Gomel Heavy Bomber Division — the first strategic division in the history of the Air Force, which mastered and conducted military tests of a top secret aircraft — the first Soviet jet bomber.
In 1955, Gordilovsky became chairman of the commission for military testing of the Tu-16. In 1954, two aircraft were lost, two more-in 1955. In 1956, as many as nine Tu-16s crashed, and the next year, seven more. But it’s not all in Gordilovsky’s division. His Tu-16 did not fall. Vitaly Alexandrovich’s exactingness, discipline, responsibility and attentiveness were influenced. He tried to draw the attention of the management and designers to the shortcomings of the Tu-16 aircraft, demanded that they be suspended from use in military aviation, categorically forbade lifting aircraft into the air at the slightest doubt about their readiness. In August 1957, Gordilovsky received the rank of Major General of aviation, and in early 1958, the Minister of Defense personally singled him out among all the commanders of strategic aviation divisions and” for the skillful leadership of flight work without serious flight accidents ” declared gratitude and awarded a valuable gift. In 1961, our fellow countryman was sent to retirement. The pilot of the 1st class, Major General Gordilovsky, then had 3,600 flight hours, three Orders of the Red Banner, the Order of Alexander Nevsky, the Red Star, the Patriotic War I degree and seven medals.
During his civilian life, Vitaly Alexandrovich successfully managed the airport in Vnukovo near Moscow for many years. His earthly journey ended in 1989. That’s what a famous pilot was born in the village of Cheressy!
Yegor Tomko was born in the village of Leonovtsy in the Perebrodsky village council in 1935, near a lake with clear water that quenched thirst and saved from the summer heat. It was it that made the boy dream of the big sea. Yegor Andreevich had a small but close-knit family. Father, Andrey Nikolaevich, mother, Evgenia Viktorovna, sister Nona and Egor himself. Children were the meaning of life for their parents.
Every job parents tried to do as much as possible, and this was the goal of the children. There was a lot of work in the summer: mowing, drying hay, looking at vegetable gardens, preparing supplies for the winter. Peasant labor hardened the boy, contributed to the appearance of such qualities as hard work, endurance, physical tempering. His parents were also very serious and demanding about their son’s studies, and they did not allow any indulgences. The school in Miory was seven kilometers away. Yegor never missed classes, often covered this distance by running, and in winter by skating on the lake or skiing. That’s why he had no equal in sports competitions at school. There was no electric light in the house, but Yegor seriously prepared for lessons with a kerosene lamp and studied perfectly. He grew up healthy and strong. He studied first in Kamianpole, and then in Miory secondary school No. 1. As his sister Nona Andreevna told me, he read a lot of literature about the sea and sailors, especially the books of A. Novikov-Priboy and Sergeev-Tsensky, Stanyukevich, etc. Therefore, it is no accident that after school Yegor Andreevich enters the Higher Arkhangelsk Naval School of Scuba Diving. Here he was engaged in wrestling, weightlifting and achieved excellent success, as evidenced by the certificates that are stored in our museum. Then he served in the Northern Fleet, in the Baltic. The sea has forever entered the soul of Yegor Andreevich Tomko. The sea became the meaning of his life. Since 30 years of naval service, he has been under water for 8 years! He graduated from the Naval Academy. He commanded a group campaign of submarines under the ice of the Arctic. After the campaign, Yegor Andreevich told his family that during the dive there was an emergency, and he personally had to put on a diving suit, lead the submariners to eliminate the malfunction. The sailors then did everything-they returned home as heroes. For the successful completion of this task and the heroism shown in 1978, he was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
Difficult days and hours fell on the fate of Yegor Andreevich during the campaigns. Once there was an accident of a nuclear reactor. 4 people died from radiation exposure at once. The others continued to fight for the life of the submarine. The miles were terrible… When they docked, Yegor Andreevich took off his hat, and almost all of his hair remained in it. We took measurements on the boat. Up to 6000 X-rays on the case… The entire crew was immediately sent to the hospital. Of the 136 sailors in the ranks, only 6 remained, including our countryman. During the accident, he visited the most dangerous compartments, but withstood the heroic body.
Or another case that speaks of him as a person with a capital letter, ready to sacrifice himself for the sake of others. Once, during an accident on a submarine, Yegor Andreevich gave his breathing apparatus to a gasping young sailor. The division he commanded was the best in the Soviet Navy. Because our admiral not only showed miracles of heroism and courage himself. But he also demanded responsibility and discipline from his subordinates. Yegor Andreevich himself was so jealous of the service that he did not spend a single vacation in its entirety, and always tried to return to his unit ahead of time.
In his service record, there are still many different orders and medals. A lot of achievements marked “for the first time”. So, during the underwater exercise, the tactical group, led by Yegor Tomko, for the first time in the history of the fleet, performed a joint firing of six different types of cruise missiles at a target position. Thus, the possibility of massive use of different types of missiles in a single strike was confirmed in practice. Yegor Andreevich also participated in the preparation and conduct of deep-sea tests of the K-525 submarine with a dive to the maximum depth. Yegor Tomka also participated in the testing of nuclear-powered submarines with long-range cruise missiles. As Deputy chairman of the State Commission for the Acceptance and Testing of the lead submarine of this project, he made many valuable proposals. He was in his place when he was appointed head of the Higher Naval School of Underwater Swimming named after the Lenin Komsomol. After retiring from military service, he worked at the Rossi Naval Research Institute. He is an associate professor, a senior researcher. Deputy Chairman of the Council of Heroes of the Soviet Union, Heroes of Russia, full holders of the Order of Glory of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region. When the Kursk was lost, the admiral could not find a place for himself. I experienced the tragedy painfully, as if I was standing in the control room of a submarine, giving commands, trying to find a way out. Yegor Andreevich was often referred to by Russian television channels as an expert. And he was painfully aware that there must have been a torpedo explosion in the first compartment. He had studied the technology of underwater diving thoroughly, and he knew the risks that sailors took. But I couldn’t get used to the fact of death.
He died on April 1, 2008. I was going to work that day. I said goodbye to my wife. I clutched at my heart …
He was buried solemnly, with honors-as befits a hero. The ceremony at the Smolensk Cemetery in St. Petersburg was attended by dozens of vice and rear admirals who came to pay tribute to their comrade. Do not forget our famous countryman and we have in Miory. In our school museum, a section dedicated to the hero has been created. And in the city, a new street is named after him and a memorial sign is installed. And in 2016, Miory School No. 3 was named after him.
The members of the circle learned about this famous man from the memoirs of Pyotr Nikolaevich Smulkevich from d.Volkovschina, who as a teenager, remembered the admiral, as he served as a coachman. Then documents about Borovsky’s life and work were found in the archives, and we found his grave at the Novopogost cemetery. Here’s what we can tell you when we stop at the black marble monument.
Severin Borovsky is a nobleman of the «Yastrebets» coat of arms. Born in the Radyuki estate near Novy Pogost on January 8, 1864, his father was a colonel in the Russian army, fought heroically in the Crimean War, and was awarded numerous awards. He was baptized in the Churchyard church. Married to Maria Iosifovna, born Shauman. Since 1881, he studied at the technical school of the Maritime Department, as a pupil he sailed on the cruisers «Bogatyr», «Africa». He was in active service from October 1, 1882. In 1885 he received the rank of lieutenant-lieutenant, in January 1905 he became a lieutenant-colonel. In December 1906. Colonel of the Corps of mechanical engineers of the Fleet.
He sailed on the armored battery «pervenets» as a forensic mechanic, a bilge mechanic on the cruiser «General-Admiral», a mechanical engineer on the steamer «Skobelev», an assistant to the senior mechanical engineer on the battleships «Admiral Lazarev», «Admiral Greig». Since 1901, senior forensic mechanic on the battleship «Sisoy the Great». On May 14-15, 1905, he participated in the Battle of Tsushima. After the sinking of the battleship, he was captured by the Japanese. When he returned, he served on the cruiser Diana. He had the Order of St. Nicholas.Anna III and II degrees with swords, St. Stanislaus III and IV degrees, bronze medal for the campaign in China (1900-1901), silver medal of the reign of Alexander III. In February 1910, he became a major general with a discharge from the service due to illness and enlisted in the Naval Militia of the Vilna province. During the years of interwar Poland, he was engaged in farming on the estate of his wife Jozefova.
The heroic and tragic struggle and drowning of the battleship «Sisoy the Great», on which our countryman served, is narrated in the novel «Tsushima» by S. Novikov-Priboy. Here is an excerpt from this work.
«The battleship «Sisoy the Great» was attacked by three times the enemy’s superior forces. The commanders refused to surrender the ship without a fight. Throughout the day, the ship was supplied with thousands of shells from Japanese battleships and cruisers. The crew of the Russian battleship returned fire and managed to keep it afloat despite the large holes and damage. At night, the wounded ship was attacked by torpedoes of Japanese destroyers, and the brave crew was again able to defend the ship. But the damage was so great that the ship had only reverse gear. Battered, burned, with bandages attached to the holes, he looked as if he had been in a dressing station. The giant’s heavy stern, which had been blown up by a mine in the night attacks, was raised. He did not walk, but floundered, churning the water with his screws, as if he was trying to break out to the surface of the sea.»
Until his death, Severin Borovsky did not forget those terrifying hours of a brutal naval battle. The hero of Tsushima died in 1936. The monument at the Novopogost cemetery is perfectly preserved.
Vitaly Augustinovich Dargel was born on August 2, 1942 in the village of Belevtsy. He studied at the Belevskaya elementary school, in the Novgorod eight-year-old. He started his career at the age of 16. After graduating from high school and college in Drue, he worked as an excavator driver. He graduated from the Leningrad Red Banner Military Topographical School with a degree in military topography. In 1965, he was sent to serve in the Union of Soviet Troops in Germany – the 68th Topogeodesic Order of the Red Star detachment. He served as a topographer of the 2nd, 1st category, senior topographer-commander of the calculation. Performed work on updating topographic maps, engineering surveys of military airfields and other objects, various operational tasks for topogeodesic support of a group of troops during exercises. For his initiative in completing tasks, he was awarded a valuable gift from the Commander-in-Chief of the GSVG, Marshal of the Soviet Union P. K. Koshev. He graduated with honors from the Military Engineering Academy named after V. V. Kuibyshev with the qualification of engineer-surveyor in the specialty «Phototopography» (1974). From 1974 to 1976 – Head of the department of the 3rd separate Design Bureau of the Military Topographical Directorate of the General Staff. He participated in the development of new tools in phototopography from 1976 to 2006 – as a teacher at the Military Engineering Academy, and since 2006, in the Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, senior lecturer, associate professor. Over 37 years of teaching, he has trained dozens of highly qualified officers for the Armed Forces of the USSR, Russia, Belarus, and a number of armies of foreign countries. Our fellow countryman was the head of scientific, diploma and dissertation works of the academy graduates. Author and co-author of more than 70 scientific and educational works, including. textbooks, monographs, reports on research work, textbooks, scientific articles, published in Russia and abroad. Candidate of Technical Sciences. Docent. Honorary surveyor. Colonel. He was awarded the Order «For Service to the Motherland in the Armed Forces» of the 3rd degree, and other government awards.
Born on December 5, 1922 in the village of Bortniki, Oleninsky district. He graduated from a seven-year-old school in the village of Skvorotynskaya. He worked on a collective farm. At the front after graduating from the Ulyanovsk Tank School in November 1942. A participant in the battles near Stalingrad, in the summer of 1943 he liberated Orel, and in the fall he fought on the 1st Baltic Front. Senior lieutenant. Commander of the tank company of the 159th Tank Brigade of the 1st Tank Corps. He died in the battle for the liberation of the Lithuanian SSR. He was buried in Shilala.
The title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded on March 24, 1945. The company of «thirty-four» Kuzmin after the breakthrough north-west of Vitebsk was in the reconnaissance group, ensuring the successful advance of the entire brigade.
The name of Mikhail Kuzmin was assigned to one of the streets of Shilale. In the village of Olenino there is also a street named after the Hero of the Soviet Union Kuzmin M. A. on the grave – a memorial plate; a street in the city of Shilala
The mother of the tanker Mikhail Kuzmin, Maria Vasilyevna, wrote from the Kostroma region to the pioneers in the distant city of Shilale: «Thank you for what. you’re tending the grave… I am sending you a letter that was sent to me by the military command after Misha fell on the outskirts of your city. Write, I look forward to your letters. Dear guys! Please visit the grave and take care of it.» How many such motherly letters, watered with tears, were sent to the cities and villages through which the war swept! Decades have passed, and the flowers on the graves of heroes do not fade. Kuzmin is also remembered in the Baltic States; in Shilala, the main street is named after him. There is a street Kuzmina and in the city of Diene. As a testament to future generations, a line from the letter of a brave tankman sounds: «How easily the people will sigh when this holiday comes – the world will win.» With all his thoughts, with all his being, the young warrior was striving for this very cherished dream. In the offensive, the tankers go ahead. Mikhail, among his fellow soldiers, was distinguished by a constant impatience to move – to make unexpected throws, to go on reconnaissance, to penetrate where the enemy was not waiting. In March 1944, he reported in a letter: «I rushed ahead, hit the car, there is no connection. So I defend myself alone: if not by force, then by deception we will take the enemy.» In the summer offensive of the 1st Baltic Front, Kuzmin’s «thirty-four» company, after breaking through northwest of Vitebsk, was in a reconnaissance group, ensuring the successful advance of the entire brigade. Here are some examples. On June 25, 1944, Kuzmin’s tankers rushed to the Western Dvina River, boldly went on the attack, destroyed three guns, 35 cars, nine motorcycles and a lot of enemy manpower, ensuring the capture of the bridgehead, from which the brigade and the infantry of the 6th Guards Army continued their offensive without delay. Four days later, Kuzmin’s company reached the city of Ushachi and, despite heavy artillery and mortar fire, immediately began fighting for the city and liberated it from the Nazis. And the very next day, the «thirty-four» senior lieutenant appeared at the river Diena, their crews acted quickly and bravely. Having broken the enemy’s resistance, the tankers captured the ferry and broke into the city of Diena. The Germans wanted to drive the daredevils out of the city at all costs. Kuzmin and his battle friends repulsed eight fierce counterattacks, but held an advantageous position. At the same time, they destroyed two Ferdinand self-propelled guns, 12 machine guns, two anti-aircraft batteries and up to 300 fascists. 12 Hitlerites were taken prisoner, including the commandant of the city. Mikhail Kuzmin acted just as aggressively in early October on the Baltic land. Early in the morning, Soviet tanks suddenly rumbled near Shilale. German guns and machine guns covered the flight of the «invincible» army. A gunfight broke out. The shell exploded in Kuzmin’s tank. The hero died. His fighting friends took revenge on the Nazis, and on the same day the red banner of liberation flew over the city.
This is the name suggested for my article by a conversation with a close friend of Avgen Anisko, Ludvik Martilenko from the village of Shaltiny in the Miory district. I first learned about Yevgeny Aniska from his friends back in the 80s of the 20th century, when I was collecting material about students of the Druisk Gymnasium. I received the address from his friend Pupin Anton Feliksovich from the village of Mezhdurechye, who studied with Avgen in Druya. But, having written a letter to Poland, I did not receive an answer. Why? This became known only now, when our fellow countryman, the writer Franz Sivko, handed over a letter from Avgen Anisko to Anton Pupin to the museum. The letter was written just during martial law in Poland on January 21, 1982. In the letter, he points out about the braking and the blockade — that is, the obstacles that were repaired by the special services, both in Poland and in the USSR. He understood that all the letters were being viewed and did not want to “light up” once again and set up others. Indicates a safer way for Anton himself to tell about the gymnasium. But we didn’t have a chance to meet again, as Anton Pupin soon dies. The letter of Avgen Anisko came to Franz Sivko through Anton Pupin’s wife, since they were his teachers. Having received the newspaper No. 29 of 1999. “Niva” from Bialystok there was a desire to write about this interesting person, a sincere Patriot of our Fatherland. To write an article, I used not only articles from “Niva”, archival materials of the school museum, but I received the main information from Ludvik Martilenko from the village of Shaltiny, who knew Avgen as a teenager, as well as a meeting with a local historian from glubokoe Joseph Bunta, born in 1927, who was a student of Anisko and who helped clarify some biographical information. Also, an interesting picture of Avgen Anisko in the circle of students of the Druisk gymnasium since 1986 was found in the magazine “Our Faith ” for 1986. On the basis of these finds and meetings, this material was obtained.
Avgen Anisko, that’s what he always called, because Eugene, this is a borrowing from the Russian language, was born in St. Petersburg in 1910, where his father worked as a teacher. Iosif Anisko, a highly educated and intelligent person, instilled in the little Avgen a craving for knowledge and books, as well as a national identity, as he participated in the Belarusian movement of the capital. I was personally acquainted with Yanka Kupala and Bronislav Epimakh-Shipil. Unfortunately, he died early, and his mother moved to Shaltiny. By the way, the mother is Constance Anisko, from the Fedukovich family. Her niece Alina was married to a well-known figure of the Belarusian national liberation movement, Joseph Maletsky, who died in Australia. To raise three children, Constance had to marry a rich widower Korolenko. My stepfather was a limited person and did not understand either the dignity of education or the value of books, especially since he lacked awareness of being Belarusian. According to the memoirs of Ludvik Martilenko, he more than once attempted to use a poker on the “chase”, which was hung by Avgen in the most prominent place. After receiving primary education at a local school in Milashov, the guy studies at the Belarusian gymnasium in Vilna, gets acquainted with the figures of the Belarusian national liberation movement in Vilnius. But the material situation of the family was difficult, so he finished his education at the Druisk Gymnasium, which is four kilometers from the Shaltins. At that time, the Druisk Gymnasium was a real center of Belarusian culture in our region during the interwar Poland. This was facilitated by priests E. Germanovich, A. Tikota, F. Abrantovich. It is not by chance that such outstanding figures as Ya.Maletsky, Ch. Sipovich, P. Mironovich, V. Zholnerovich and others came out of its walls. Yevgeny Anisko also occupies an honorable place in this glorious cohort. He continues his studies in Vilnius, but often visits his homeland, where he actively works among the village youth so that they preserve their national dignity in conditions of continuous polonization. In the museum of Secondary School No. 3, I read the memoirs of Witold Antonovich Naydenk, born in 1920 from the village of Milashovo and P. Kashkur (1906-1985) from the village of Rachnevo, recorded in 1980. It was he who sent parcels of food to Avgen Aniska in Poland during the crisis in 1981. We keep his friendly ticket of the circle of the Belarusian Institute of Economy and Culture in Shaltiny. He presented a postcard and a letter from Avgen Anisko for our museum. He corresponded with him until the end of the 80s of the twentieth century. here is what he told about the activities of Avgen Anisko in his homeland. It was he who, together with Maletsky, was the main organizer of the circle of the Belarusian Institute of Economy and Culture in Shaltiny, which during the entire period of pan-Polish Poland carried out great national educational activities. Among the active members of the circle were Edward Zawisha, Peter, Felicia and Leokadia Tsvechkovsky, Yazep Urbanovich. Leokadia Germanovich, Elena Anisko, Avgen’s sister. Ludvik Martilenok identified all the friends of the circle who were placed in the photo from the archive of Yu.Turonka, published in the newspaper “ Niva ” No. 25 for 1999. The villagers especially remembered the amateur theatrical performances of the circle members. The most popular was the play by Frantishka Olekhnovich “The Devil and the Woman”, Kupalovskaya “Peacock”. The Polish police put obstacles in the way of the artists, so the house for the productions was chosen with two entrances so that they could hide. The performances were discussed for a long time by the villagers, and their participants received the names of their heroes for a long time. Yes, Joseph Urbanovich, who played the role of a Whistler, remained with the nickname “Whistler”until his death. Ludvik remembers how young people were reading Belarusian books and magazines that Anisko brought from Vilnius. Pyotr Kashkur, the treasurer of the circle, presented the museum with the magazine “The Way of Youth” for the whole of 1929 with the seal of the circle. Flipping through the magazine, we meet the name of Anisko, who constantly corresponded with the editorial board of the magazine. The library of the circle contained a large collection of books, in addition to the classics of Kupala, Kolas, it also contained such rare publications, to date, as V. Lastovsky’s “History of the Belarusian-Belarusian book”, V. Lastovsky’s “Brief History of Belarus”, A. Smolich’s “Geography of Belarus” , many periodicals were distributed, including “Belarusian Source”, the file of which for 1925 was given to us in the museum by Ludvik Martilenok.
After receiving his education, Avgen Anisko became an active correspondent for various Belarusian publications. And in 1933, he began publishing the magazine “Zolak” with the subtitle “Organ of the young Belarusian Socialist Party”. According to its content, it can be assumed that at that time Avgen Anisko adhered to the position of a foreign group of the Party of Belarusian Social Revolutionaries. In the magazine, the editorial board criticized the practice of the national liberation movement, revealed the causes of its crisis.The magazine criticized Marxism and fascism at the same time, the dictatorship of the proletariat and the capitalist system. Many pages were devoted to the Belarusian national liberation struggle: the proclamation of the BNR, the Slutsk uprising, the magazine “Homan”, there was an article about Ignat Grinevitsky, the murderer of Alexander 2 .The magazine gave a wide panorama of events in the world, reviewed Belarusian periodicals, wrote about new directions of socialist thought in the West. Alas, most of the publications were under pseudonyms, so now it is difficult to specifically determine which articles belong to our countryman. The magazine ceased to exist in 1938, a total of 8 issues were published.
During the Second World War, Avgen Anisko began working as a teacher, and his activity in this field continues for almost half a century. Half-middleweight, he boasts of Belarusian patriotism, a high civic position. Here is what a former student of the Novopogost school, Gennady Gaylevich nar., told about his teacher of history and literature in 1928. “I remembered the lessons of this teacher well.Firstly, despite the fact that they were held under the conditions of the occupation regime, they never mentioned Hitler and Germany, and the lesson began with a greeting-Long live Belarus ! The students answered-Long live Belarus and it is getting stronger ! Especially interesting stories were about the Belarusian and local history. It was then that I first learned about our famous countryman Vaclav Lastovsky, who studied and lived in the old churchyard nearby in his childhood years. I also remember the legends from the books of V. Lastovsky about the shoemaker stone, about Yurka-dudar, recorded by Lastovsky in the vicinity of the churchyard. Belarusian literature was taught according to the textbook of M. Goretsky. But the partisans burned down the school in 1943 and only the certificate of graduation with the signature of Avgen Anisko remained with Gaylevich for memory.”.
The name Turonkov is widely known in the Mior region. The ancestry stretches back to the XVIII century. Turonki always lived in the vicinity of the new churchyard. Their ancestral home is in. Denises. Father Stepan was a tenant and therefore often changed his place of residence. Bronislav was born in Enopol in 1896, now there is no estate. He was baptized in the Novopogost Church. He studied at the Pogost sixth-grade public school, which he graduated from only at the age of 16. In 1912. He enters the Vilnius private Gymnasium. During her evacuation, he studied in Vitebsk, and later in Yaroslavl, where in 1917 he received a certificate of maturity. Returning to Disenshchina, before the arrival of the Poles, Bronislav Turonok opens 15 Belarusian primary schools. He worked as a teacher first in Bildyugi, then in novy pogost. In 1919, he studied at the teacher’s courses in Vilnius, where he taught Lastovsky, Goretsky, Zhdanovich, etc. In September of this year, he entered the medical Faculty of Vilnius University, where he graduated in 1924. Bronislav Turonak was one of the organizers of the Belarusian Student Union, the executive editor of the magazine “Our Way”. In December 1923. He became the executive editor of the main organ of the Belarusian Christian Democracy newspaper “Krinitsa”, where he published numerous articles under the pseudonym “Tomashni”. At the same time, it joins the Belarusian Peasant Union. He was elected deputy secretary of this party. In 1926, he became the founder of the Belarusian Institute of Economy and Culture, and later was elected chairman of the Vilna Department of this organization.
After receiving a doctor’s degree, he actively popularized healthcare in Belarusian lectures and publications. Some of them were published in separate brochures. After marrying Maria Reshat, he settled in Dukshty, where he works as a doctor, but continues to cooperate with well-known Belarusian figures M. Mashar, E. Maletsky, P. Sergievich, A. Tikot. His life was tragically cut short in 1938. His son Yuri Turonok lives in Warsaw, a well-known journalist and historian, his book ” Belarus under German Occupation” was published in Belarusian and Polish and aroused great interest.
An outstanding figure of the Belarusian renaissance, born in the dungeon Kolesniki Disnensky district (now Glubokoe district) On October 20, 1883, Father Justin was a landless small tenant, and therefore the family often changed their place of residence, moving from one master to another. The metrical books of the Novy Pogost show that our area is closely related to the Lastovsky family. One of the Lastovskys served as a priest of this church in the XIX century. The fact that the most interesting years of infancy were spent with Vaclav in the Stary Pogost, is evidenced by his later memoirs, published in the magazine “Krivich”. From there, we learn about his studies at the school of literacy, which existed in the Stary Pogost, and about the legend of the Pogost land that has been preserved in memory. Where our fellow countryman further received education, it is not exactly known: not a single certificate has been preserved. Perhaps he studied at the Novy Pogost National School, Disensk incomplete gymnasium, and attended lectures “hare” at the university. But the main role was played by great mental abilities, a thirst for self-education, which made Lastovsky one of the most educated figures of the Renaissance. From 1909 to 1914, he worked as the secretary of “Nasha Niva”, from 1906. He is friends with the Belarusian Socialist Community. Here is the formation of Vaclav as a writer and publicist, known under the pseudonym Vlast. His wife Maria Ivanaskaite, the famous Lithuanian poet Lazdine Peled, helped him significantly. Here is what their daughter later recalled about these times: “all the long years of their life together, Lastovsky could not attach much to the maintenance of the family, often he did not work anywhere at all, only sat in a separate room, surrounded by papers and books. Sometimes dawn found him like this. Maria had less opportunity to write. A significant part of the time she gave to household chores, and at night she embroidered to earn money for the family.” It was Lastovsky’s apartment that became the center of Lithuanian-Belarusian literary relations. Lithuanian writers and artists often came here: L.Giria, M.Ciurlenis, G.Ladsbergis, Belarusians Ya.Kupala, M.Bogdanovich, Ya.Kolas, Z.Byadulya. In 1910, Lastovsky published for the first time in the Belarusian language “A brief Essay on the History of Belarus”. Maxim Bogdanovich highly appreciated the literary activity of our fellow countryman. Here is what the famous Belarusian poet wrote in 1913: “Vlast printed only three or four things, but each of them can be taken as an example of how to write. Especially good are the stories “Sozh and Dnepr”, a very beautiful fairy tale-legend (this has not yet happened and generally stumbles infrequently), and then “The Day of the Pink Flower”, which resembles the best of the stories that brought worldwide fame to the Danish writer Andersen. Lastovsky worked particularly fruitfully in Nasha Niva (1912-1914). Here appear not only his works of art, but also a number of critical articles about the work of Ya.Kupala, M. Bogdanovich, Z. Byaduli and other Belarusian writers. Pseudonyms of Vaclav Lastovsky at this time: Vlast, V. L., Yu.Vereshchaka. Most of his works are associated with folklore, history, especially with his native Disna country. In connection with the occupation of Vilnius by German troops, “Nasha Niva” ceases its activities. A new Belarusian newspaper was needed. In 1915-1918. Vaclav Lastovsky, together with the Lutskevich brothers, publishes the newspaper “Homan” and is its editor. The newspaper is published twice a week in Latin and Cyrillic, calls for national and social liberation, the creation of the Belarusian People’s Republic. The publication welcomed the overthrow of the autocracy in Russia. The highest values were independence, intellectual and political freedom, native language and literature, social optimism and the Christian religion. Here, under the pseudonym “relative”, Lastovsky publishes the first article in the Belarusian language about the outstanding figure of the national liberation movement Kastus Kalinouski. The newspaper contained new works by Ya.Kolas, A.Gurlo, Ts.Gartnoy, A.Harun, etc. I introduced him to the then unknown heritage of F.Skorina, F.Bogushevich, A.Obukhovich. Behind all this activity was the painstaking work of our fellow countryman. He sacrificed not only his mind, but also material resources to awaken the national consciousness of the Belarusian people. As now, most Belarusians did not have the finances to support the newspaper, and the rich often did not have the consciousness. At the same time as literary work, Vaclav Lastovsky is also engaged in social and political activities. In March 1918. joins those Belarusians who proclaim the independent Belarusian People’s Republic. Despite the German occupation, the BNR launched extensive educational activities. For the first time in the Belarusian land, the native word sounded in full voice. Belarusian schools are being opened, dozens of Belarusian newspapers and magazines, hundreds of books and textbooks are being published. Our fellow countryman publishes a collection of his folklore recordings, which he collected in the Disenshchina “Chastushki. Songs of Songs”, compiled textbooks for Belarusian schools “Sower”, “Forget-me-not”, “The first reader for Belarusian children”, “Anthology on the history of Belarusian literature”, “What every Belarusian needs to know?”. In all these publications, there is a love for the native land, its history, for its people and its language. It is not known through what glasses you need to read these books in order to see there the bourgeois nationalism that the Stalinist historians so willingly reproached our countryman with. In December 1919, Lastovsky headed the Council of Ministers of the Belarusian People’s Republic. For speaking out against the Polish occupation of Belarus, the Polish authorities arrest him and imprison him. Once in exile in Kaunas, he leaves the government of the BNR and engages in scientific and literary activities. In 1923-1927, he published the magazine “Krivich” and was its editor. On the pages of the publication there are poems, prose, journalism, art and book studies, a lot of materials on ancient Belarusian history, and on issues that domestic historians began to work on only in the XXI century. The magazine also contained many legends about our native Miorschina. At this time, Lastovsky created fundamental scientific works “The History of the Belarusian-Belarusian Book”, “The Russian-Belarusian Dictionary”. Their value has survived to our time. And the originality and uniqueness of the writer Lastovsky, his talent was clearly manifested in the fantastic story “Mazes”. His memories of Maxim Bogdanovich are also valuable for Belarusian literature. In 1926, Vatslav Lastovsky was invited to an academic conference in Minsk, where he saw with his own eyes the success of Belarusianization, which was being carried out at that time in the BSSR. He decides to return to his homeland, as he believes that there he can bring great benefit to his people. In 1927, the countryman was appointed to the responsible position of director of the Belarusian State Museum. He is the secretary of the Institute of Belarusian Culture, which later became the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR. In 1928, he was elected an academician of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR. Conducts ethnographic expeditions, found the cross of Euphrosyne of Polotsk. But already in 1930, Belarusization was curtailed, and its active figures fell under the axe of Stalinist repressions. Lastovsky, who was accused of creating the mythical Union for the Liberation of Belarus, was one of the first to be arrested. After the investigation, he was sent to Saratov, where he continued to work in the department of manuscripts of the Saratov University. Re-arrested in 1938, accused of counter-revolutionary activities and shot. He was rehabilitated only in 1992.
Kuzma Yulianovich Kruk was born in 1896 in d.Mostyshche of the Nikolaev volost of the Disensky uyezd. His father, Julian Dominikovich, had a farm, recognized by the local authorities as a model, and a plot of land of 18 hectares. The district agronomist often came to see Julian Dominikovich, who taught him how to farm and cultivate the land. He delivered all the agricultural machinery of the time: horse-drawn drive, threshing machine, harp, seeders, plows, rollers. The agronomist wanted to build his father a brick house and dig a pond, but Julian Dominikovich was afraid that he would get into big debts.
Father Julian was literate, and therefore valued literacy, and, having many children, he allowed a school in his house so that his own baby could also learn. The eldest son Kuzma, paying attention to his extraordinary abilities, was sent to the Disna gymnasium. At the end of 1915, when many officers from the nobility died on the fronts in the First World War, military schools began to take students from the common people, if only with a secondary education. That’s how they sent Kuzma Yulianovich to the Irkutsk school of ensigns. After graduation, he went to the front near Riga. For his courage in battle, he received many awards, and was awarded the rank of staff captain. After the October Revolution, he joined the Red Army. His work was highly appreciated by the famous military commander Tukhachevsky. In 1920, Kuzma Kruk returned to his native village. After the conclusion of the Riga Peace Treaty, he went to study in Vilnius at the Law Faculty of Vilnius University. But I didn’t have to finish. He immediately became actively involved in the national liberation movement, was friends with the society of the Belarusian school, and then joined the Belarusian peasant-labor community. Here Kuzma actively collaborates with well-known figures of the national liberation movement: P. Metla, I. Dvorchanin, B. Tarashkevich, V. Voloshin. He took an active part in the issue of the magazine “Molniya”, which satirized the Polish authorities through satire.
Looking through our archive in the Museum of Books and Printing, we find in No. 30 of the newspaper “Nasha Pravda” for July 16, 1927, references to a fellow countryman. This newspaper of the revolutionary-democratic direction was published by the BSRG. On the first page, it contains interesting information about Kuzma Yulianovich. From them, we learn that he was elected to the city Council of Vilnius. And even his candidacy was put to the vote in the election of the mayor (president) of Vilnius. But there were more supporters of the Poles in the Parliament, so Kuzma Kruk did not pass to the second round. This valuable information testifies to the wide popularity of Kuzma Yulianovich among the population of pre-war Vilnius, where many Belarusians lived at that time. In the 30s. Kuzma Kruk became a candidate for ambassador during the elections to the Polish Sejm. Wearing an ordinary peasant’s scroll, he carries them on horseback with bundles of numbers (there were no bulletins then) to the villages of Disnenshina, Miorschina, as he was well known here. It was then, probably, that he got the honorary nickname “Belarusian tsar”. But he was not elected to the Sejm, the Polish leadership falsified the results. In 1938, when the authorities finally suppressed the Belarusian national liberation movement, almost all domestic organizations ceased to exist. Kuzma Yulianovich returns to his native village. But d.Mostyshche was located in the border zone, so the Polish border guards even took Kuzma Kruk out of the Grigorovich Church, where he came to pray. As we have already learned from the memoirs of Tamara Andreyevna Kruk, the Soviet authorities also did not trust the former Gromadovets. In 1939-1941, he worked as a teacher in the Alekshytska Semiletka school. The new leadership, despite the lack of personnel, did not put the former activist in a leadership position. During the German occupation, Kuzma Yulianovich continues to teach. But in 1942, he was arrested by the Disna police and placed in the prison of the city of Disna. As Tamara Andreyevna told, Kuzma Yulianovich was behind bars together with her father, who, like other villagers, was released by a Catholic priest from Bobylev. But Kuzma Kruk was left, as the former head of the Polish border guard commanded the police and now he had the opportunity to get even with the “Belarusian tsar”. On May 27, Kuzma Kruk was shot at Disney. In 1944, his relatives reburied him in the cemetery near d.Driguchi.
Pyotr Vasilyevich Metla was born in 1890 in the village of Kukhtintsy. He received his primary education in a parochial school. In 1906-1910 he studied at the Disen City School, in 1911-1912-at the pedagogical courses in Kaunas. He worked as a teacher in Disenshchina. In 1914-1917, he served in the Russian army; he studied at the Alekseevsky Military School, whose junkers opposed the Bolsheviks in 1917. Arrested along with other cadets. From the end of 1917 to 1921, he again taught at home and in the Molodechno district from 1921-in Vilnius. He worked in a cooperative. He participated in the creation of Belarusian schools, organized Belarusian performances, and organized village youth. His sincere public activity made him popular among the Belarusian people. Therefore, he was elected from the Bloc of National Minorities as the ambassador of the Polish Sejm in 1922, from the Sventyansky district No. 64 he was one of the organizers of the Belarusian Embassy Club, during the meeting of the Sejm he consistently defended the interests of the Belarusian peasants. Since 1926 – member of the CPZB. One of the founders and a member of the Central Committee of the BSRG. Actively participates in the Belarusian school society. He continues to work in the society of Belarusian legal cooperative organizations. Editor of the public newspapers “Belorusskoe Delo”, “Nasha Delo”. Author of a publication about a trip with Ambassador Eremich to Minsk in 1924.
He travels a lot in Western Belarus, makes speeches, and calls on the peasants to fight for land and freedom. Despite the mandate of the ambassador, he was arrested on January 16, 1927 in Volozhin by the Polish authorities, in the case of the hromada. The investigating judge, on the basis of the collected evidence, immediately brought charges. In 1928, at the” trial of 56″, he received a sentence of 12 years in prison. Thanks to the exchange of political prisoners, since 1930 in the BSSR. In 1932-1933, he was the chairman of the Commission for the Study of Western Belarus of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR. In 1932, he wrote a book “About the Belarusian school Society and its Struggle”. He was arrested on September 1, 1933 in the case of the “Belarusian National Center”. On January 9, 1934,” as the head and organizer of the BNC”, the judicial board of the OGPU of the USSR sentenced him to death by firing squad. The execution was replaced by 10 years of the camp. It is aimed at the construction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal. He died there on August 12, 1938. Unfortunately, the memory of our famous countryman is not immortalized in his homeland.
His fate began, as usual for Belarusian intellectuals of the early twentieth century, from a peasant family. Father Donat Pavlovich lived in Ikazni and was engaged in farming. A distinctive feature of the Mantsevichs is their national patriotism and thirst for freedom. As a young man, Donat Pavlovich took part in the uprising of Kastus Kalinovsky. The revolutionary character was early manifested in his son Florus. In 1901, at the ceremony of anathema-the excommunication of Leo Tolstoy-an eleven-year-old boy refused to sing in the Sacred Choir. Although the Mantsevich family has many children, the parents made every effort to ensure that their son received an education. Florian had an aptitude for science, he graduated with honors from the national school and entered the Polotsk Teachers ‘ Seminary. However, it did not take long to learn. For participating in a strike in 1907, he was expelled with a “wolf ticket”. Only a great desire for education allowed him to get the title of teacher. Until 1914, he taught in Dvinsky district. He constantly tried to add to his knowledge, and books on astronomy, philosophy, and art appeared in his personal library in German, Polish, and French. Flor Mantsevich saved the book treasure through all the hardships and hardships. While working in a Russian school, he was nevertheless active in the dissemination of the Belarusian book and language. Subscriber and active correspondent of Nasha Niva. Under the pseudonym of which Perechka sent numerous sketches there, in which he defended the dignity of the common peasant, accused Russian tsarism of cruel social and national oppression of the Belarusian people. A good musician, he collected Belarusian songs, recorded village melodies. He sent his materials to the famous composers V. Teravsky and A. Grinevich. In the First World War, Mantsevich served as an orderly at the front. After the February Revolution of 1917, he was one of the first to organize schools in the Belarusian language. Here he encountered Polish chauvinism, no less cruel than tsarism. And in 1921, under the terms of the Treaty of Riga, Western Belarus became part of Poland. And again, activity began, this time against the Polish authorities, who sought to destroy the Belarusian language and its main support — Belarusian schools. Yes, while working in a Polish school, Flor Donatovich still promoted his native word. He subscribed to Western Belarusian publications “Sakha”, “the way of youth”, “lightning”. Therefore, the Polish authorities did not allow them to work in one place. He was transferred from Ikazni to Nivniki, and in 1935 – to Starye Kryuki. The Polish school inspector always asked him when he arrived: “What nationality are you?” Mantsevich always replied “I am a Belarusian”. A highly gifted person, he also developed abilities in his students. His ward, the People’s Artist of the USSR, the famous Belarusian composer and music figure Gennady Ivanovich Titovich, later recalled this with special warmth. Flor Donatovich rallied people to fight for the Belarusian national culture. Despite the harassment of the Polish authorities, he organized performances and concerts in his native language.
Even half a century later, his mature students remembered the teacher’s patriotism well. Mr. Mantsevich not only gave knowledge, he was an adviser and doctor to the parents of his students. The name “Florova Krinitsa” still lives in the people – the teacher made a log house for it. Flor Donatovich’s wide fame and great authority as a fighter for the people contributed to his nomination in 1939, after the liberation of Western Belarus from the Polish authorities, as a deputy to the People’s Assembly in Bialystok from the Miora electoral district. On October 29, at the morning session, he made a speech about the entry of Western Belarus into the BSSR. In the last year before the war, Mantsevich taught in Malaya Kovalev region, organized regional courses for training Belarusian language teachers, and conducted extensive public work. On the second day after the occupation of our area, he was arrested on the denunciation of a traitor. The last people who saw the master attest to his dignity and peace. Knowing about his death, the humanist did nothing to save himself, because Red Army soldiers were hiding in the house where his large family lived. Executed in Polotsk on July 30, 1941, at the age of 51. Unfortunately, the name of this person is not immortalized in our area.
e was born on January 12, 1906 in a peasant family in the village of Yakuzhi. He first studied at the Milošov Primary School, then graduated from the Stefan Batory Gymnasium in Druj, and received a higher medical education at Vilnius University. At his own expense, he published Belarusian calendars and books. Our book and print museum has one of these calendars for 1933. Joseph Malecki worked as a doctor since 1935, mainly on the railway, before the war he specialized in obstetrics and gynecology in Warsaw. With the beginning of the Second World War, he returned to Vilnius. First he worked in Grodno, then he headed a medical school in Baranovichi. Then the forced representation of the Belarusian Central Council in the Vilnius district and forced emigration, first to Germany, and then to distant Australia.
Since his student years, he took part in the Belarusian cultural and national movement. In Germany, he became the initiator and main organizer of the “association of Belarusian doctors in a foreign land”, edited the journal “Medical Thought”. In Australia, he was a member of the first office of the Belarusian Association in the state of New South Walia, wrote materials and helped in the publication of the month “New Life” in Sydney. In 1965, he was among the first organizers and members of the first management of the Belarusian Cultural and Social Club, for the purchase of a building for which in 1973 he donated a significant amount. He headed the Federal Council of Belarusian organizations in Australia. He actively helped Belarusian and other emigrants get settled, while personally engaged in medical practice. Always and everywhere he showed himself as a Belarusian, published in 1976 in Toronto the book “Under the Sign of the Chase”, published memoirs, medical and journalistic articles. At the expense of the Maletsky family, a bell was purchased for the church in Druya in 1992.
Joseph Maletsky died on June 6, 1982 in Australia, far from his homeland. There was no sign of his house now. From D.Yakuzhi, where 50 people lived in the 30s, only two residential buildings have been preserved.
The childhood of the famous Belarusian composer and folklorist Gennady Ivanovich Titovich is connected with the Novy Pogost. He was born on 25.07.1910. He studied at the Novy Pogost school, the Vilna Conservatory in 1936-1939. In 1939-1941, 1945-1951. editor of the regional radio, consultant of the House of Folk Art. In 1952, in the village of Velikoe Podlesye, Lyakhovichi district, he created a folk choir, which was reorganized in 1959 into the Belarusian State Song and Dance Ensemble, and in 1964 – into the State Choir of the BSSR, which Titovich led until 1974 in 1974-1975. Senior researcher at the Institute of Art History, Ethnography and Folklore of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR. He conducted a large collection, scientific, and propaganda activities, recorded more than three thousand Belarusian, Russian, Ukrainian, and other songs. People’s Artist of the USSR, People’s Artist of the BSSR. He was awarded the State Prize of the BSSR in 1968. He died on 21.06.1986. Now a museum is dedicated to the famous composer in the Novopogost school. For the historical museum of School No.3, the participants of the association of interests found the sheet music given to Titovich by the famous figure of the national liberation movement, Flor Mantsevich, who played a major role in little Gennady’s passion for music.
The future artist was born in Ptitskiye in 1942. Like many other children, he graduated from high school in Miory, and even then began to show talent. At school, Vyacheslav liked geography, drawing, history, and native literature. Before entering the institute, he repaired roads, loaded gravel, and worked as a pioneer guide in an orphanage in the village of Alexandrov. Then he studied at the Art and Graphic Faculty of the Vitebsk Pedagogical Institute, from which he graduated in 1970, and in 1978 he completed postgraduate studies at the Institute of Art History, Ethnography and Folklore of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR. Since 1970. He works at the Vitebsk State University, received the title of associate professor in 1984, professor-in 1993. He was the head of the Department of Methods of Applied Fine Arts. Our countryman is one of the first Belarusian researchers of the works of Malevich, Chagall, Lisitsky and other artists in post-revolutionary Vitebsk. Since 1977, he has published his experiments in periodicals. The research talent of Vyacheslav Shamshur is evidenced by his monograph ” On the propaganda and design art of Belarus “(1989), the section of the 6th volume of the “History of Belarusian Art”, a number of scientific articles in the periodical press on the ethnography and art of Belarus, methodological and educational manuals. Vyacheslav is active in creative activity, since 1986 participates in art exhibitions, works in easel graphics (landscape, portrait, still life). Individual and artistically refined series of his graphic works “The Road to Miory”, “Embankment in Miory”, “Vitebsk and Vitebsk region”, individual paintings – “Winter Pictures” (1986), “Soon to warm lands” (1987), “Entertainment of childhood. Spinning Wheel”(1987), “Okolitsa” (1988), “Easter Morning” (1990), “Evening Liturgy” (1996) , etc. The works are distinguished by the expressiveness of the plastic language, national color, and emotional mood. Most of them are aimed at reviving national spirituality. The motives of the native Miorschina and the abdominal land, with which his fate is closely connected, predominate.
The artist was awarded the Diploma of the Ministry of Education of the BSSR and the badge “Excellent Student of Public Education”. Now he lives in Vitebsk and works as a professor at the Department of Design, Decorative and Applied Arts and Technical Graphics of the State University named after P. M. Masherov. He often comes to his native Miorschina. In the educational and methodological manual “The Imaginative world of pastels”, he wrote:”I was destined to be born in the Mior region, in a modest, but in its own beautiful corner of the Vitebsk region, which is called the Belarusian Lake district”.
Love and admiration for nature lived in his soul since childhood. I read books about the surrounding world, especially liked “in the footsteps of Robinson” by Academician Verzilin, which gives a detailed description of nature. There are tips, for example, how to bake bread from the roots of water lilies, how to make birch bark from gutalin, and other interesting things for friends of the living environment. Vyacheslav Shamshur’s mother was very sensitive to nature. She knew the names of different plants and instilled love in him as best she could. The Grandfather’s forge contributed to the creative thinking of the future artist. There he watched as iron was turned into useful things – horseshoes, latches, pokers. I dreamed of becoming a geologist as a child-I collected stones in the field.
All of Vyacheslav Shamshur’s hobbies are connected with nature. He wanted to preserve the surrounding beauty. Interest in drawing was most evident in school. With great respect, he recalls the historian Pyotr Nikiforovich Solokha, who created a drawing circle, where the future artist was engaged. He is also grateful to the physicist and head teacher Alexander Iosifovich Kapitanov, who, after Solokha’s departure, became a teacher in this creative circle.
Vyacheslav Shamshur studied during socialist realism. Now he is trying to escape from the captivity of concrete images, creating something more generalized, devoid of direct figurativeness, abstract. The expression of feelings, according to the professor, depends not on the form, but on the author himself and his ability to convey. Witty words and art equally express feelings, organically combine and have a great influence on a person.
The artist believes that the meaning of life is a good footprint, a family, where the most important thing is mutual understanding. The daughter followed her father’s path, received a higher art and graphic education, works in the field of graphics, taught art history, drawing, graphics at a secondary school in Vitebsk with an artistic bias. Author of the exhibition “Woman in graphics”.
Vyacheslav Shamshur annually takes part in plein-air, general and personal exhibitions, the first of which, dedicated to the memory of his mother, was held in Miory in 1991. He never intended to count his paintings. Many of them are kept in private collections in Holland, America, and Poland. Many are in the author’s workshop waiting for new exhibitions, and many are presented to friends and acquaintances, and a few to the historical museum of our school.
Milashova is the birthplace of the modern Belarusian writer Elena Maslo, who was born here in 1967. She first studied at the Miloshovskaya eight-year school, where her parents, philologists, taught. They mainly influenced the development of Elena’s curiosity about literature and creativity. After graduating from Secondary School No. 2 in Miory in 1984, she entered the journalism faculty of the Belarusian State University, which she successfully graduated from in 1989. At first, she worked as a photojournalist for the newspaper “Pioneer of Belarus”, editor of the local history department of the newspaper “Tourism and Recreation”, editor of the department “Swing”, editor-in-chief of the newspaper for teenagers “Transition Age” and the magazine “Birch”, head of the department of children’s literature of the publishing house “Fiction”. From 2009 to 2013, she was a friend of the Union of Writers of Belarus. Elena Maslo began publishing at the age of 10 in the district newspaper “Znamya Truda”, in children’s newspapers and magazines “Pioneer of Belarus”, “Raduga”, “Berezka”, “Pionerskaya Pravda”, etc. The first fairy – tale book of the young writer was published in 2005 under the title “Secrets of an abandoned House”. Then the new editions “Christmas with the Godmother”, “Journey with the Ladybug”, “How Ioni Kamyshnaya ran to visit Palanga”, “Rat Falik travels” were published. Her last book, which recently saw the light — “My name is Lakhneska”, “In addition, our countryman was published a lot in magazines”, “Youth”, “Verb”, “Flame”, the newspaper”Literature and Art”. For excellent creativity for children, it was awarded numerous awards: the Golden Cupid Award, diplomas of readers ‘ sympathy, according to the results of a survey of the newspaper “Nasha Niva”, her books were recognized as the best in the category of children’s literature. Elena Maslo is known as the organizer of the Milos-Milos readings, which are of great importance in popularizing the history of native places and culture of Belarus. The writer from Milashov was interested in the activities of our circle and museums, and popularized our work in her articles.
Ivan Ivanovich Kuntsevich was born in 1948 in Novy Pogost. He studied first in his native village, then in Kaliningrad, where he graduated from the school and the Technical Institute of the Fishing industry with a degree in engineering technology. He worked at the Riga base of the refrigerated fleet. I went to fish processing floating bases as a master, a production engineer, and an assistant captain for production. The sea covered a deep mark in his biography and was illustrated in his work. He was published in the newspapers “Rybak of Latvia”, “Russian Word”, in the almanacs “Ruslo”, “Sonnet”, “Svetoch”. Author of poetry collections “Dance of the Dawn” (1999), “I will resort to the gates of paradise” (2001), “Jealousy” (2003), “Jasmine Rain” (2007),” In the course of life “(2012),” Roman Heart”, “Meeting “(2013), “Choir of White Apple Trees”, “The Secret of Life. Biorobots”, “Joy that you will give”, “Solar thread”, “Ocean of love”. His work is characterized by impulsiveness, expressiveness, which brings him closer to the Russian poets of the “Silver Age”. Many poems stand out for their musical rhythm, precision of forms. On the Internet on the website “Proza.ry ” published the book “Notes on poetry”, an excerpt from which was included in the international collection “Russian Prose” (2012, Riga, “Svetoch”). Since 2002-member of the Russian Mizhregional Union of Writers of St. Petersburg, member of the International Association of Writers and Publicists. Riga companies create many sensual, melodic songs based on the poems of Ivan Kuntsevich. The most conscious of them are: “I don’t like cold autumn” (music by N. Rakhmanova), “Don’t Go away”, “Rowan Tree”.
Writer and poet Milediy Nikolaevich Kukut was born in 1953 near the village of Usovtsy, studied at the Novgorody school. Then the family moved to the Sharkovshchinsky district. He graduated from the Belarusian Agricultural Academy, worked as a mechanical engineer, chairman of the collective farm. Now he works in the Department of Agriculture of the Sharkovshchinsky district executive committee. He began to engage in creative work almost at the age of forty. Milediy Kukut’s prose and poems were published in the local press, regional and republican publications. His first book “One Day and All my Life” was published in 1997, and his poems and novella “Purity of Soul” in 2008. His novels “May Night”, “Harvest”, “In the seventh heaven”were published in the collections. In his works, he shows the beauty of the Belarusian nature, and in his fiction stories, the writer shows the immortality of moral values that overcome evil using modern material.
The youngest daughter of a family of philological teachers from Milashov also became a children’s writer. Natalia Maslo was born in 1970. She studied at the Milošov basic school, secondary school No. 2 in Miora. In 1993, she graduated from the Faculty of Philology of BSU. The first work was published in the district newspaper “Znamya Truda” in 1986. Later, her stories were published in the magazines “Vyaselka”, “Beryozka”, “Ostrovok”, in collections of works for children. In Belarusian publishing houses, Natalia Buchinskaya’s books were published: “Magic Beads” (2006), “The Adventures of a small car” (2011), “Unforgettable meetings with Adele the sheep” (2013), “Attractions for the water: there were also stories about life above water and underwater” (2015). In the work of the Milos storyteller, one can feel the influence of the beautiful and mysterious nature and the history of the places of her childhood.
Nikolai Prokofievich was born in the village of Voynitsa, Belynichsky district, Mogilev region, in a family of collective farmers in 1947. After a decade, he graduated from the Mogilev Soviet Party School, and later from the Minsk Party School. He worked as a deputy chairman of the collective farm “Leninsky Appeal” of the Belynichsky district, then as a deputy chairman of the collective farm “October” in the Mior region. For twenty-six years, he was the chairman of the Novopogostsky village Council. After retiring, he began to engage in personal farming and beekeeping. From his youth, he began to publish first in the local press, then in the newspaper “Zvezda”, “Friend of a pensioner”, in the district newspaper “Znamya Truda” , and then in the “Miorsk News”. In recent years, he began to publish his works in separate books. He writes mostly his short stories and poems in the Belarusian language. The first book, which Nikolai Bogdanov published in 2015 under the title “In life what just does not happen” had a circulation of 100 copies, a volume of 138 pages. The publication contains short stories, poems and humoresques. In the first section of the book, which is called “All about love”, there are 14 short stories that introduce the reader to this trembling feeling in the relationship between a man and a woman. The main meaning of these works is that love is not subject to any rules, it is special in each case, and for each person separately. In the second section “On Nature and Man”, Nikolai Bogdanov writes with special warmth about the relationship between man and nature, the need to preserve natural wealth, otherwise nature does not forgive. It is interesting to read the stories from the section “From the life of the past and modern”, the author wrote them down, it seems, just from life itself. In the sections “Jokes”, “Little things from nature” are placed humoresques and jokes. The last section of the book “I can’t forget” contains poems of various contents, especially a lot of them are dedicated to the native land and love. The second book by Nikolai Bogdanov, titled “Ruts”, was published in the capital’s publishing house “Knigazbor” in 2018. Its circulation is 99 copies, the volume is 100 pages. The book contains, as in the previous edition, poems, sketches, humoresques. The main essence of the works is in the title of the book itself, that each person has his own ruts, which can not be circumvented and not circumvented, but everyone can overcome them. As in the previous book, most of the stories are taken by the author from life itself, each story has a very deep instructive content.
Nikolai Nikolaevich Dargel was born on January 14, 1941 in the village of Dvorishche, which is located in the Novopogostsky village Council. Now there is only one house left. He studied at the Volkovshchinsky school. After graduating from the Minsk Architectural and Construction Technical School in 1959, he spent his entire life in the construction profession, going from an ordinary worker to a manager. In 1974, he graduated from the Belarusian Polytechnic Institute. While serving in the army, our countryman built various objects in Siberia, then actively engaged in construction in Lidchina, Molodechno, and after the Chernobyl accident, he built housing for immigrants from radiation-contaminated territories. Having already retired, Nikolai Nikolaevich became the organizer and builder of the majestic Holy Dormition Cathedral in Molodechno. He became actively engaged in poetic creativity when he went on a well-deserved rest. For 15 years, N. Dargel published five collections of poetry: “I bow to you, my dear home” 2001, “Sad in Silence” 2004, “Oh, you are my White Russia” 2006, “Weary Impulses of the Soul” 2010, “But we are still Hussars” 2016. The main theme of his work is the Motherland, the beauty of his native land, the attractiveness of his native home. In the poems of our countryman, there are many reflections on the essence of life, relationships between people, and love.
Pyotr Belorus-it was under this pseudonym that our countryman Pyotr Yelensky wrote to the newspaper “Nasha Niva”. There is almost no information about him. It is only known that he lived in the village of Mirschina, Leonpol gmina. His first correspondence began to appear in the newspaper in 1913. Peter Elensky composed poems, sketches, jokes and other works until the middle of 1915. His short story “Yakim the Destitute” was published in the famous printing house of Martin Kuhta in Vilnius. There is a copy of this book in our book and print museum. In the works “Rumors from under Disna”, “Murder”, “In the Forge”, “Healing from poverty”, he spoke out against the illiteracy and lack of culture of the Belarusian village, raised the topic of social inequality, showed the birth in the minds of peasants of protest against the orders of tsarist Russia. The stories of P. Yelensky were included in the anthology of Belarusian pre-revolutionary literature.
Ildefons Bobich… Theologian, Belarusian religious writer, playwright, publicist, translator. In literature, he is known as the writer Peter Simple.
Our countryman Ildefons Bobich was born on January 22, 1890 in the village of Dedino, Disensky district, Vilna province. His father, Konstantin, was a poor peasant. In the local cemetery, friends of the archaeologist-the local history circle “Argonauts of the Past” in 1987 found the graves of I. Bobich’s father and mother and arranged them well. The countryman received his initial education at the Milosovsky National School. Later, he continued his studies at the Kovno Gymnasium, from which he graduated in 1909. It was here, at the beginning of the Belarusian Renaissance, that he became interested in the national folk heritage, culture, and history. Ildefons Bobich’s literary work began on January 25, 1907, when his story” Tears “was published in the newspaper”Nasha Niva”. In this work, we can mention the events of local history, under the manor palace, the Rudnitsky Palace in Dedinka is shown. In the sketch “Tears”, also published in “Nasha Niva”, the author wrote: “your fate is heavy, poor man! Long eyelids you carry your difficult cross! But the hour will come-and you will break the shackles in which your tormentors have shackled you, you will raise your standard high for free work, for a better life, for a new free life.” Some of its icons are translated into Ukrainian. The debut took place, but it did not turn the young guy’s head, did not prevent him from hearing in his heart the soft but insistent voice of heaven, which called him. In those days he wrote: “my youthful heart hesitates-what to do. Pan is calling me. Pan wants me to dedicate my life to him. What should I do? Probably, there is only one choice-to answer with consent.” In 1909, the young man entered the Vilna Theological Seminary, where he proved to be an able student, a good cleric. As the best student, Bobich was sent to further study at the Roman Catholic University, where he studied from 1911 to 1913. There he received the blessing of Pope Pius X for the entire Belarusian people, as well as for the publication of the Belarusian Catholic newspaper “Belarus” (“Biełarus”), published in Latin in Vilnius from 1913 to 1915. The newspaper “Belarus” quite often published articles by I. Bobich, mainly on religious topics. It is published in the newspapers “Nasha Niva”, “Our Opinion”, “Belarus”. His works “Volya”, “Icons”, “Treasure”, “Thoughts in someone else’s Page”, “In a Quiet Christmas Evening”, “New Year’s Thoughts”, “A Lot of Money” were noticed and highly noted by famous literary critics, first by Sergei Poluyan, and later by Maxim Bogdanovich. Here is how the famous pesnyar Bogdanovich wrote about the writer-priest: “only Peter the simple has a true ability “His main advantage is in the harmonious development of thought, in the conciseness and sonority of the language, unusually foamy in its composition.”
In 1914, Peter the Simple published a pamphlet “Why do Belarusians need newspapers?”, in which he reflects on the importance of the native word as a source of knowledge, information, as a means of educating consciousness and enlightenment. This edition is also in our book and print museum.
On July 27, 1915, a primitive mass was held in the Drujsky Church, and until the last days of his life, Ildefons Bobich (Peter the Simple) dedicates himself to the Lord. From now on, he directs all his creative abilities to make his native language sound in the church. And it is heard in his sermons in Drui, Idolta, where he works as an abbot, in Miora. Father Adam Stankevich writes about this in his book “the native language in the shrines”. In 1917. Peter Simple is a dramatic work “Mother-in-law”, published only 75 years later in the magazine “Svityaz”. Since 1920, ks. Bobich served as the vicar of the cathedral Church in Vilnius. At that time, a congress of the Belarusian Catholic clergy was held here. Among its organizers and active participants was the priest Ildefons Bobich, who gave an essay on the Belarusian religious publishing house. The Congress adopted a number of decisions, which were supposed to expand the use of the Belarusian word in the church. It was proposed to introduce the native language in the Vilna Theological Seminary, as well as to seek from the Holy See the appointment of one of the Belarusian priests to the post of bishop-suffragan. The decree was handed over to Bishop Matulevich, who promised to contribute to its implementation as much as possible. Soon after the congress, the organization of Belarusian priests “Svetoch” appeared in Vilnius, which was immediately banned by the Polish commissioner of the Vilnius government. Father Bobich worked hard to get as many priests as possible to join the Belarusian cause. He wrote and presented to reviewers the work” Sunday Gospels and Sciences ” in three volumes. Censor Priest Professor A. Krajialis agreed to the printing of the book, but the secretary of the episcopal curia, I. Halecki, before giving the censor’s permission to the bishop’s signature, sent a letter to Warsaw to the Jesuit Szczepanski, who asked if it was possible to issue it? The answer was no, but no. Krajialis wrote to Bishop Matulevich about the groundlessness of the ban, and the cop. Bobic received permission to publish his work.
Simultaneously with the service in the cathedral of the cop. Bobich taught at the Vilna Theological Seminary. In his pastoral work, he widely used the Belarusian language, and this, as is well known, was not liked by the then authorities of Vilnius, nor by many Poles.
In 1923, the priest-Doctor Bobich was appointed rector in Germanovich, in the Disensk region (now Sharkovshchinsky district). Probably, it was no coincidence that he got to the place where Belarusian priests worked in neighboring parishes (in Borodinichi, Viktor Shutovich, in Zadorozhye, Frantishek Romeyko, in Luzhki, Yazep Germanovich, in Sharkovshchina, Zenon Yakut, in glubokoe, Antoni Zenkevich). Of course, Ksenia Ildefons Bobich also preached Belarusian sermons. He taught at a local school, rallied young people around him, and created a youth organization. Even now, in Germanovichi, older people warmly remember their former priest, remember his wonderful sermons, human kindness and charm. Father Joseph Germanovich mentioned that after the cop. It was difficult for Bobich to preach to others, because the priest had an amazing gift of an orator, the gift of persuasion. But the Polish authorities began to carry out an offensive on the Belarusian language. The persecution of Belarusian priests and their transfer to central Poland began. And so Ildefons Bobich had to choose: either to serve the God who called him, or to serve Belarus. He chose the former. His Belarusian sermons have disappeared, and now he writes mostly theological works in Polish. In Germanovichi, our countryman prepared for publication in Polish the book ” in the school of a beggar from Assiz. Homilies for the Franciscan Tertiars”” The 360-page edition was published in 1930 in the St. Wojciech bookstore in Vilnius. A copy of this book is also in our museum. In 1926, a correspondent from Germanovichi wrote with resentment about the Polishness of I. Bobich, about his departure from Belorusism.
In 1930, I. Bobich was sent as a priest to Ivye, headed the Vishnevsky deanery. In the Braslav Regional Museum there is a notebook of his memories of a trip to Rome” with a return ticket”, also in Polish.
He began to work especially fruitfully in the field of Belarusian land during the German occupation. It was then that I. Bobich wrote two volumes of sermons: “The native language in the church” and “Teach all nations”. The priest planned to create four more volumes, but was arrested by the Nazis and spent many months in the Leeds prison. The interrogations and tortures of the Gestapo undermined his health. The sudden death on April 28, 1944 prevented the talented priest-writer from realizing all his plans and plans. Our countryman is buried in the churchyard of the church in Ivye. My first article about Peter the Simple was written before the centenary of his birth in 1990. It calls for honoring the founder of Belarusian literature in the Mior region, but even after 25 years, the memory has not been immortalized: neither by a sign, nor by a memorial sign, nor by the name of the street. Still, few people know the name of the writer Petri Simple.
Our fellow countryman-writer was born in the estate of Mery (now Kletov Dvor) in 1946. Since childhood, he worked, studied at the St. Petersburg School of working youth, graduated from the journalism faculty of BSU in absentia. He worked as a correspondent for the regional newspapers “Vitebsk Worker”, “Our Word”, was published in various publications.
“Enchanted Farm” – this book of our countryman, journalist and writer was presented to the museum of books and prints from the entire Sinyavsky family by his wife Salome. The second book – “Tales of the master Peter from near Polotsk “ – was published in the publishing house “Fiction” in 2013. The fairy tales collected in this book impress with their original, juicy, accurate Belarusian language. Fairy-tale events are closely connected with modernity. Adventures, curiosities, trips in search of happiness and the meaning of life will be interesting for both children and adults. In the afterword, our fellow countryman-writer Elena Maslo tells with emotion about the author Peter Sinyavsky.. The thread of the writer’s life ended prematurely after an incurable illness in 2008. During his lifetime, he never had to publish his works in a separate edition, but they were published after the author’s death. This means that their value has not faded for the future and will continue to fascinate with their language, interesting plot, and warmth of feelings. The beautiful decoration of the book, made by Maria Karataeva, gives the publication even more fabulous unusual.
Our famous fellow countryman-writer Franz Sivko was born on May 3, 1953 in the village of Vyata. He received his first education in Mezhrechenskaya elementary school, where Anton Feliksovich Pupin, a former student of the Druisk Gymnasium, taught. It was his Belarusian nature that had a significant impact on the little village boy. The teacher instilled love for the Motherland and brought up the Belarusian self-consciousness of the students in the same way as the Mariana priests did in Druya.
Franz received his secondary education at the county school. In 1970, he entered, and in 1975 successfully graduated from the Philological Faculty of the Belarusian State University. For five years, he taught Russian language and literature, ethics, and was an organizer of extracurricular and extracurricular activities at secondary school No. 2 in Verkhnedvinsk.
Since 1980, F. Sivko has moved permanently to Vitebsk, where he teaches in secondary schools No. 29, 30, 12, works as a deputy director for educational work, in the Bureau of Propaganda of Fiction of the Union of Writers of Belarus, in the editorial office of the Regional newspaper “Vitebsk Worker”. Since 1993, he has been teaching the Belarusian language at the Vitebsk State Technological University.
In 2010, the university administration did not renew the contract with Frantz Ivanovich for further teaching activities, and he worked for some time at the Vitebsk Church of Jesus the Merciful, and then was invited to the post of proofreader in the publishing house of the Catholic magazine “Eve Maria” and today is his own correspondent for the Vitebsk region. For a number of years, F. Sivko is friends with the Council of the Belarusian Language Society of Vitebsk region. Since 1993, he has been a member of the Union of Belarusian Writers, the Belarusian PEN Center. From 1999 to 2009. Frants Ivanovich Sivko was elected chairman of the Vitebsk regional branch of the Union of Belarusian Writers.
Our countryman began his permanent literary work in 1983 and became an author of prose books “With what you will come” (1991), “The Last journey to the land of the Livs” (1997), “Udog” (2001), “The Sacrificial Lamb” (2003), “Asymmetry” (2005), “The Day of the Tambourine” (2008), “Islands” (2011), books for primary school children “Belyachik” (2003). Sivko is one of the authors of the collective collections “Dvina” (1992, 2000), “Roots” (1994), “Edge” (1997), numerous literary and artistic publications in the weekly magazines “Literature and Art”, “Nasha Niva”, magazines “Maladoc”, “Glagol”, “Flame”, “Belarus”, “Neman”,”ARCHE”, confessional publications “Nasha Vera”, “Ave Maria”.
Franz Sivko is the author of journalistic articles on the problems of modern life, in particular the language situation in the country, the preservation of spiritual heritage, etc. It was translated into Russian, Ossetian, and Bulgarian. In his work, the writer examines moral, ethical and social problems, explores the peculiarities of the mentality of the Belarusian society at the critical historical stages in the context of universal values. The creator prefers the genre of parables and short notes-essays.
Our countryman is a laureate of the regional literary prize named after V. Korotkevich. Franz Ivanovich presented the Museum of Books and Prints not only with his autographed editions, but also with a typewriter, on which he worked on his first books.
The future poet was born on November 20, 1909 in the village of Sushki, Disensky district. Since childhood, he suffered poverty, as he was an illegitimate son, grew up without a father, so he worked hard, earning a hunch of bread. He studied at the Chereus primary school. He was greatly influenced by Flor Mancevich. P. Sushko worked in agriculture, began to be published in Western Belarusian progressive newspapers quite late, since 1938. in poems and notes he spoke out against national and social oppression. In the Vilna Academic Library there is a handwritten collection of his poems, prepared in 1939. under the name “echoes”. After September 17, 1939, the poet presided over the Cheryos village Council, the organizer of the collective farm “combat partisan”. During the war, he became a liaison of the Moscow detachment, then a Partisan of the 4th Belarusian Partisan Brigade. Under the pseudonym Yazep Sevnya wrote to the underground newspaper “Zov Partizan”. His poem “March of the Belarusian partisans” became the anthem of the people’s avengers. In our museum of books and prints there is another handwritten collection of the poet, the poems were written in different years. After the war, he continued to be published in the local, regional and republican press. Pavel Sushko’s poems “The Path”, “Oh, there was a girl” are set to music. In 1965, some of his works were published in the collection “Flags and Torches”. The poet died in 1974. On the way to d.Lipovka we visit the Cheryosskoye cemetery, where Pavel Sushko found eternal rest. “I have not done evil to people,” is the tombstone inscription on the modest monument of the poet. More famous was his son Peter.
Dmitry Kosaty was born on August 3, 1914 in Disna, as evidenced by the birth certificate issued by the priest to the Roman Catholic parish of Balaban. But there is an opinion that the future poet was born near the Russian-Prussian border beyond the Niemen, where his father Alexey Kasaty at that time served as a border guard. In 1921, the boy was left an orphan. My father was captured in Germany, returned home sick with tuberculosis and died in 1921. Only 1.5 hectares of land in the village of D’Arc remained as a legacy from his father. Podlipki have Luzhkov. Yanina’s mother from the Kyvka family took on any job to teach her son. The persistence of Dmitry and his mother allowed him to successfully complete his studies at the gymnasium. Sometimes he had to take a break from school to earn money from his studies, then he would graze cows and do agricultural work for his uncle. The situation changed when Dimtrii Kasaty began writing poetry in the magazine of the Dinen Gymnasium”Our voice.” Stanevsky, the headmaster of the gymnasium, did everything to free the talented student from paying for his studies. A real moral and material support for the novice poet was provided by the teacher of the Polish language and literature Tsyps. Kasaty’s first poem, titled ” Today I am alone “, was published in the magazine” Our voice ” No. 1 for the 1931\1932 academic year. In 1931-1934, he was already deputy editor of the magazine, and the following year he was elected its editor. The book “Sventoyan Lights”, published by the Dyakuya sponsor in 1935, brought great popularity to the novice poet. When Tsyps moved to teach at the Navgorodok gymnasium. Then the young poet moved with him. In 1937, he graduated from the gymnasium and entered Warsaw to study. His poems are published in the magazines of young Polish writers”young feathers”. During the German occupation he was engaged in agriculture,
In March 1945, the Polish Troops were mobilized to the 2nd Army. He took part in the fighting against the Nazis. Demobilized on October 10, 1945. Since 1947, he has been working in Walbrzyg as the head of culture and education. From 1952, he served as director of art exhibitions until his retirement in 1976. After the war, he studied poetry only periodically. He died in 1993.
Ryszard Kurilczyk is a writer known not only in Poland, the author of unusual historical novels and novellas that briefly cover the vast time and territorial expanses of history. His work is dominated by the restraint of form and the primacy of content. He is looking for an answer to the numerous riddles of history, over which researchers from different eras are struggling. However, it does this not only on the basis of historical information, but also artistically fascinating. It is not for nothing that in Poland he is called the last of the Myagikans in the field of historical prose. And Ryszard Kurilczyk was born on May 18, 1945. in the village of Dedino in our Miorschina. Later, his parents moved permanently to Poland. Ryszard was trained as a design engineer, an excellent specialist in the construction of large power plants, including nuclear power plants. The famous Polish politician, statesman, worked in various high positions, in particular as Voivode of Słupski and Pomorski, Deputy Minister in Warsaw. Author of historical books “Secret Archives of the King of Kings”, “Jerusalem, Jerusalem”, “The Last Apostle”, “The Pope”, “From Marathon to Orderica” , etc. He is known to the Belarusian reader for his translation into his native language of the novellas “Slavic Eve” and “The Unbending One from Nazareth”. In Poland, he is called the last milkman of historical prose. They even compare it with the famous Henrikh Sienkiewicz. The ancestors of the famous writer found rest in the village cemetery near d.Dinovka.
It is with Leonpol that the childhood and youth of our famous countryman, poet, writer, museum worker, folklorist, ethnographer, local historian Sergei Paniznik is connected.
Sergey Stepanovich is a real hero of spirituality and Belarusian identity, wealth and diversity of aspirations for our Myorschyna, Belarus and the whole universe. What he had done and written would have been enough for several human lives.
Indeed, the usual “Babyshkovsky kid”, as he modestly likes to call himself, for his 70 years has left us a continent of achievements in all areas of creativity. Our future famous poet was born in the most terrible time of the war, on May 10, 1942, in the village of Bobyshki, not far from Leonpol, famous for its history and monuments.
It was his studies at the Leonpol school, the beauty of nature on the horseshoe of the Dvina, that contributed to the beginning of his poetic work. The first poem was published in 1959. It was from this time that the countdown of his printed heritage began. After school, he studied at the Mogilev Medical School, then served in the army and entered the Faculty of Journalism of the Higher military-political school in Lviv. Here, during his studies, he meets Ukrainian poets. Ancient Lviv with many monuments, museums, libraries has an unforgettable impression on the young poet. The end of the school coincided with the publication of the first poetry book “Kastri Kupala” (1967). First Sergey Paniznik serves in Central Asia, then in Czechoslovakia. Here, in Prague, he meets the famous Belarusian singer Mikhail Zabeida-Sumitsky, and other figures of Belarusian and Czech culture. In 1972, the military journalist Poniznik published another collection of “Field Mail”, which quickly disappeared from bookstores. But the honesty in the army, and even conscious Belarusian patriotism, did not go unnoticed by the security agencies, which always sought out dirt on people who were different from others, were not a crowd, a cog in the machine. During his military service, Sergei Stepanovich had numerous certificates, commendations, and awards. But the merits turned out to be less than compromising material, and in 1975 he was first expelled from the ranks of the CPSU (and this then meant the collapse of his career), and soon he was dismissed from the army with the rank of captain. Despite the fact that the next book “Crown of Hope” is being published, it is difficult for him to get a job with the “wolf ticket”.
There was even a proposal to exclude our poet-patriot from the ranks of the Union of Writers of the BSSR. With difficulty, despite the experience of journalistic work, he got a job in the newspaper “Vecherny Minsk”, later working in the editorial office of the magazine “Maladosc”, where he opens the way to creativity for many young poets. Working in the publishing house “Yunost”, he prepared for printing and published a dozen volumes of collections of “Batskayshchyna”. This is a real unique historical record, so necessary for the youth of the newly revived sovereign Belarus. Paniznik’s personal work is also fruitful, and books of poetry are published one after another: “Man and Age” (1979), “A Word for a Good Day” (1982), the documentary story “Bronislava” (1985), “Mainland” (1985), “Zhiten” (1986), “Reins” (1989), “A clerk of the Zemsky ” (1994), “Dank Herbalist” (1999), “Under the glow” (2004). The poet has many translations from Ukrainian, Czech, Russian, and Latvian. The result was a collection of translations of the Meeting of Kindred Universes (1997) and a book in English and French (2011). The multi-faceted activity of the poet-citizen was also manifested in the creation of three museums in his homeland: in the village of Tsinkovtsy, Verkhnedvinsky district, the museum of Babka Paraski, and in the Mior Region in Leonpol, the museum “Radzimovedenie” and the museum of Babka Yadvinya. Their creation is the fruit of relentless search and gathering work. Our countryman is a real strongman in collecting the history of the continent, the discovery of our Atlantis. Back in the 60s, he traveled with a tape recorder to the villages of our Fatherland and recorded musical and folk heritage. Now that these songs and rituals have been forgotten, they are a treasure trove for Belarusians. The poet’s creative nature is evidenced by numerous photographs of famous personalities of Belarusian culture: M. Zabeida-Sumitsky, V. Zhidlitsky, V. Korotkevich, R. Borodulin, etc. These are not just photos, but real masterpieces of art. From the drawing of the Western Dvina sent to the museum, created 50 years ago, we can say that our famous countryman also has the talent of an artist.
The future writer was born on a farm near the village of Belevtsy in the Novgorody village Council of the Miorsky district, in those days of the Polotsk region – in the land of lakes and swamps. He first studied at the Belevskaya elementary school, then graduated from the eight-year school and the school of working youth in the village of Novgorody. Like all village children, he started working on a collective farm at the age of 11. The father of the future writer, Grigory Dargel, early taught the children of peasant labor: plowing, mowing, milking a cow-everything without which it is impossible to live in the village. And my father taught me to respect work, to respect bread. He said: “Those who know how to work and live in the country will never be lost. Everyone loves bread.” From his mother, in addition to the lullaby, the little boy also heard Soviet songs about Komsomol members, about Budenovtsy. Mother taught Slavomir to read, instilled love and kindness to people. This moral quality, which was laid down by parents in childhood, carried the future writer through his entire life. After graduating from high school in Novgorod, Slavomir worked for six months as a physical education teacher. He was drafted into the Soviet Army, where he passed a real school of life. After the army, he served in the police, studied at the Law Faculty of the Belarusian State University named after V. I. Lenin. After graduation, he worked as a legal adviser in Minsk institutions for 25 years. Continues to work now after retirement. He began to engage in literary creativity at school. He was published in the district and army newspapers, in the magazine “White Tower”. The main themes of Slawomir Dargel’s work are rural life, nature, love, relations between people, and military themes. Most of the works are written in Russian, but he does not shy away from Belarusian in his work. During this time, the writer published the following books: “Earthly Happiness” (2012), “300 kilometers from the capital” (2013), “Unequal marriage” (2015), “The woman from my Dreams”, “Clear Sky above the clouds”, ” Crane in the Sky “(2017),” The Smell of meadow grasses “(2018),” Stork Asya “(2018),” Button “(2018),” Our roots are in the ground ” (2019) and others. For his anniversary, he published a new book of prose, “My and only my”. In 2014, our countryman became the winner of the International Literary Competition “Family.- Unity.- Fatherland”, and in 2015-the winner of the literary competition of the Union of Writers of Belarus, dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the liberation of Belarus from the Nazi invaders and the 70th anniversary of the Great Victory for documentary prose about the war. He was awarded the medal of the Union of Writers of Belarus “For a great contribution to literature”. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Belarusian police, the Ministry of Internal Affairs has announced its gratitude for participating in the competition for the best work dedicated to the internal affairs bodies. Our fellow countryman is a member of the Union of Writers of Belarus. The writer does not forget his homeland, where he spent his childhood and youth. He often comes to Miorshchyna, to his native Belevtsy, where his parents ‘ house still stands, to visit his sister in the Settlement. Meets with his fellow countrymen, always an expected guest in schools, where he willingly meets with students. Slawomir loves the past of his region, in his works he tells about the terrible pages of the War. Thanks to him, a monument was erected on the grave of the shot inhabitants of the village of Belevtsy. He gave many of his finds to the museum association of Secondary School No. 3 in Miory. For the writer, the main qualities of a person are in the first place: kindness, humor, hard work, commitment, unselfishness. At the same time, Slawomir Dargel considers the love of work to be the most important trait of a person’s character. Does not accept such qualities as: sycophancy, deceit, arrogance, vanity, greed. The main principle of his life is to do good to people, not to keep evil in his soul, to do any work well.
Pavel’s son Pyotr Sushko was born on January 1, 1937 in the small and extremely cozy village of Sushki (then belonging to the Braslav district of the Vilna Voivodeship). For the family of the West Belarusian peasant poet Pavel Mikhailovich Sushko, he became an expected and beloved son. The poetic creativity of his father directly influenced the choice of the path of Peter, who from childhood heard euphonious poems.
Pyotr Pavlovich’s growing up would have been normal if it hadn’t been for the war… At this time, little Peter and his sister were with their mother Nadezhda Romanovna in a partisan detachment. Here is what Peter’s sister Tamara Pavlovna Orlovskaya told us at our meeting: “We were taken to a partisan detachment. The punishers were walking through the forest with their dogs, and Petya was holding Dad’s notebook, probably with poems. My mother ordered this notebook to be buried in the moss. The enemy didn’t find us. We went to the Dvina River to cross to the other side, and the bombing of the bridge began. They were hiding in a small trench, and my brother’s hands were badly singed by hot shrapnel. Then they were very ill. We were taken to the other side by ferry…”
After the war, Pyotr Sushko first received an education in the Chereus seven-year school, which he graduated with good grades in 1953. At that time, poems began to be born in his sincere soul. Peter began his career in 1954 in the Miora district newspaper ” Dawn of Communism”, where his first poem “Warm Rain”was published. The sixteen-year-old boy aspired to knowledge, so he went after the seven-year-old to Miora High school, from which he graduated in 1956. By the way, in 2002, a memorial plaque dedicated to the poet was installed on the wall of Secondary School No. 1 in Miora.
Life did not stand still, and Pyotr Pavlovich grew up more and more every year, and began to earn money on his own. In 1956-1958, he worked as a teacher at the Alexandrovsky orphanage in the Miorsky district, and as a laboratory assistant at a secondary school. After serving in the army in 1958-1961, he entered the Faculty of Journalism of BSU, from which he graduated in 1966. At the university, Pyotr Pavlovich met a girl with whom he tied his fate. On this occasion, the poet wrote a poem “January wedding”.
“Armed” with higher education, Peter began to hold responsible positions: head of the department in the Miora district newspaper ” Znamya Truda “(1966-1968), correspondent of the newspaper”Vitebsk Worker” (1968-1969). After some time, the poet moved to Minsk and got a job there as a literary employee of the newspapers “On Guard of October” (1969-1970),” Zvyazda “(1970-1973) and the magazine” Vozhyk ” (1973-1977). A little later (1977-1980), Pyotr Pavlovich served as the editor of the literature department of the magazine “Vozhyk”, in 1980-1987. He was the executive secretary of the weekly magazine ”Literature and Art“, then a senior editor at the publishing house “Flame” , and in 1984 the author became a member of the Union of Writers (SP) of Belarus.
Peter Sushko wrote not only exciting and heartfelt poems, but also humorous and satirical collections. These are “Gord suchok”, “Osti on guard”, “Parnassus Forge”, “Kasiy Yas kanyushynu”, “Reflections at Parnassus”, the book “Poetic Veche” — the first in Belarusian literature wreath of parody sonnets defined by deep philosophical content. By the way, according to the book “Osti on the alert” in the Chere library once held one of the annual January evenings, which are dedicated to the work of local poets. Peter also worked fruitfully in the lyrics, as evidenced by his collections “Channels”, ” Crown of Sonnets”, “Land of Healing Herbs” (dedicated to his native Lake), which are distinguished by the depth of feelings, loftiness of thoughts, and originality of images. No less interesting is the poetic collection of Peter Sushko called “Bigosovsky ferry”, which seems to connect not only the shores of the Western Dvina, but also military memories with peaceful times, and lyrical prudence with a friendly smile. A lot of works of funny genres are placed in this book (“Joking River”, ” Recognition of a first-year student”, etc.).
In addition, Peter wrote poems for children. This began with the birth of his son, to whom the first work was dedicated. In the soul of the author, the collections “Merry Bye”, “Shmeleva Kachkalka”were poured out on paper. The poet was very fond of children, always wanted to convey to them something good, sincere and pure. This happened during literary meetings with schoolchildren, where Peter Sushko read his own poems, which taught him to love his parents, help with the housework, appreciate friendship, etc.
Our countryman is known not only for his literary activity, but also for his good command of foreign languages. As evidenced by his translations from Polish and Ukrainian. It is impossible to tell everything about a person of this scale (for our area) at once, when and at all possible… Some of Peter’s poems are favored by composers A. Polonsky and L. Sverdel, who wrote songs on them.
The poet never forgot about his young friends and even dedicated poems to them. In addition, Pyotr Pavlovich is very friendly, kind, always shone with a smile, loved his native village and came here every year. Here I took a break from the hustle and bustle of the city and met with friends, of whom I had a lot. Belarusian poet Neil Gilevich said: “Peter Sushko has a natural sense of humor, the ability to notice the funny, comical in life, there is a complete ability to organize a satirical plot.” Peter liked to direct his witty and caustic words against poachers, drug dealers, bribe takers, and drunkards. In this regard, the poems “So that you know”, “Don’t do as I do”, “Father told his son”, etc.are noteworthy. He was published under the pseudonyms Pyatrus Bublik, Yas Ezhinsky, Mikhail Voloshkovich, Timokh Dereza, Halimon Klin, Yaska the bald, Apanas of Parnassus, Konstantin Pavlyukovich, R. Remnets, Petrok Remnets, Kirsha Rymar, Roman Sitkovich, Thomas Zdeshiy.
For a long time, we knew about our famous compatriot Tekli Vrublevskaya only from the stingy lines of the “Encyclopedia of Literature and Art of Belarus”. When creating the district book “Memory”, we also did not find any new materials. Even the great literary experts of the 19th century, Adam Maldis and Gennady Kiselyov, could not help us. Only some information could be obtained from the works of Polish researchers T.Turkovsky, T.Mikulsky. Recently, the well-known Belarusian literary critic Nikolai Khaustovich analyzed the literary heritage of Tekla Vrublevskaya on the basis of the materials he collected bit by bit. These studies became the basis of our article.
Teklya Vrublevskaya (maiden name Bozhimovskaya) was born in the 70s of the 18th century. The place of birth is still unknown to us. It is known that the family of the Bozhimovsky coat of arms “Lada” comes from the Mazovian land, where they had the estate of Bazhim. Stanislav Bozhimovsky served in the Lithuanian army and fought bravely under the standards of Hetman Chodkiewicz and Radziwill. He acquired land holdings in the Polotsk district, which is very close to Disna. But it is possible that Teklya may also have an origin from the Bozhimovsky coat of arms “Belyn”, which also originates from Poland. Adam Bozhimovsky of this family settled in Lithuania in the early 17th century. Representatives of this family took an active part in the reformation movement, were priests and very converted people., received education in the best educational institutions in Europe, worked as priests in the Protestant cathedrals of Koidanovo, Novogrudok, Zabludovo, Slutsk, Vilna. The granddaughter of one of the sons of John Bozhimovsky, who did not become a priest, could also be Teklya. So the mystery of the origin still remains. It is reliably known that Teklya Bozhimovskaya married a nobleman from under Disna Vrublevsky at the very beginning of the 19th century. As we know, the noble family of the Vrublevskys was widely branched in the Chechen region, during their travels, the “Argonauts of the past” met tombstones with this name in the cemetery of the 19th and 20th centuries. Moreover, until 1840, Disensky Uyezd was part of the Minsk province.
Where and what kind of education Bozhimovskaya received is also unknown. Girls in those days studied more at home. Probably, literary creativity , and not the family, or the economy interested the woman . Even before her marriage, she had already prepared a collection of poems “Village Games”, this was recalled in 1806 in his memoirs.Bykovsky.. And after her marriage, he visited her at Disney. Vilna public relations to which the poetess turned did not dare to print the works of an unknown author. Then she writes a letter to a well-known writer and poet at that time, who published more than a dozen books by Ignat Bykovsky, asking for a review. We do not know what the famous writer replied, but the fact that he favourably appreciated her work is evidenced by three poems that he wrote for himself and attached to his biography. I.Bykovsky also established personal contacts with the poet, visited her at Disney. But for an unknown reason, this collection was not published. Only Teklya Vrublevskaya did not stop her literary activity.. This is evidenced by the memoirs of the writer A. E. Adynets, who refers to Ludvik Upretsky, who personally knew Teklya from Bozhimovsky. “She was already elderly, a widow, rented a fairly large estate, but having rented out the farm to her sister, she herself was engaged exclusively in poetry, practicing it also in everyday life. First of all, she is a fan of Greek poetry and history. She dressed like the Spartan Greeks, that is, in half like a man, always having a kind of Greek helmet, or rather a diadem, at her temples. In the garden there was a gazebo on the model of a Greek shrine, without walls, on columns; There, in summer, like Sybil on a tripod, she would sit in a chair on a raised platform and watch the village youth’s games, which she arranged for herself every holiday, after the fashion of the Greek games, and she would hand out the rewards herself. Also here, invited neighbors had the opportunity to hear her works., while they appear in print. For this reason, she was hospitable, polite and charitable , and was readily visited, loved and appreciated. Even the fame of the poetess, whose works were published, could significantly impress the audience.”
In 1815, Teklya Vrublevskaya began a second attempt to print her works, this time at her own cost. But since she was not wealthy, she first decides to find out the cost of printing from different publishers. Her letter to Yu has been preserved.Zavadsky:
“Noble Lord Benefactor! I’m sorry that even though I’m a stranger, I burden you with my treatment. Appreciating in the activities of the noble lord a person who cares about increasing education among the people, I decide to ask that he deign to inform me about the cost of printing a sheet in the Vilna printing house. I want to publish two of my own tragedies: one called “Panthea, Queen of Susa”, and the second – “Mustafa and Zeangir” and two translated by me from the French language –”Astarbe” and “Callisto –the beautiful martyr” by Pan Callardo. If I have not preserved the spirit of tragedy, if, perhaps, I have violated the rules of drama, let them forgive me as a woman, and sometimes as a person, from whose hands something rarely comes out completely. “The publisher gave the poetess an answer with an estimate, but apparently he did not suit her and the poetess printed her works in the printing house of the missionary priests. Two years later, they published her original works, but the translations from the French were never published, perhaps there was not enough money. Alas, the manuscripts have not survived to our time. The works of our poetess did not remain without the attention of critics. In 1921, in Warsaw, Jan Savinski noted the poetic abilities of the poetess from Disna, but mostly the review was critical, both in terms of the language of the tragedy and its content. Indeed, the works of T. Vrublevskaya did not fully comply with the canons of classicism, but now we can consider this not as a disadvantage, but the emergence of a more progressive trend – Romanticism. As a drawback, the Warsaw critic also noted the use of vernacular expressions in the tragedy, which is a positive point for the modern view. The author herself clearly experienced the imperfection of her works as a genre of classical poetry, but could not decisively overcome the rules that existed at that time. The first printed works inspired the poet from Disna to write new works. The new tragedy, Narimund, was based on local history. And this book was also published at its own cost with the undermining of her friends and relatives (more than 40 people). Among them can be named Disensky Marshal Kazimir Buynitsky, one of the famous writers in the Polotsk region, Marshal Mikhail Khrapovitsky, Judge Ferdinand Bozhimovsky, Constance Bozhimovskaya, Stanislava Lyubinskaya from Bozhimovsky. Special thanks to my brother’s wife, who was engaged in economic affairs in the estate of Vrublevskaya, while the latter wrote literary works.. In the preface to his book, the author evaluates his work with great irony and self-criticism:
“The more a person lives, the more he goes into his shortcomings. They are difficult to get rid of, or not at all. I am in a similar position. An irresistible thirst for poetry compels me to prepare more and more books-for the consumption of moths, or rats, whose lives I try to prolong with my pen….So I give out two more tragedies and promise to give out one each year…. If I don’t amuse, teach, or amuse (my readers ) then I won’t spoil anyone in front of everything. “The reason for the self-irony was the lack of popularity caused by life in the province far from the literary circles of Vilnius, especially Warsaw.
The plot of the new tragedy Vrublevskaya chose an excerpt from the book by A. Guanigni (Guagnin) “Chronicle of European Sarmatia” in 1578 by A. Guanigni, an Italian by origin, captain of the troops of the INCL, a participant in the Livonian War, commandant of Vitebsk. In his book, he not only described the events in which he was a participant, but also the ancient history of Lithuania, using chronicle materials.
If we analyze the tragedy, we see that the author, while preserving the external attributes of classicism, violated its basic rules of poetics. First, Vrublevskaya admits falsification of historical sources, replaces history with her own fantasy. Secondly, the conflict is more intimate than civil, the main character Narimunt appears only in the last act of the tragedy. The language of this and other works of the poet from Disna does not tell the tragedy of classicism. But what our Disney poetess was criticized for today is just an achievement. Being a provincial poetess, she was ahead of her time and without realizing it, created the prerequisites for romantic poetry. The work of T. Vrublevskaya had a significant influence on the works of the famous Adam Mickiewicz. The characterization of the heroes of the poems “Grazina”, “Konrad Wallenrod” coincides with the heroes of “Narimunt”. So Mitskevich’s Rimvid-the prince’s adviser corresponds to the one of Vrublevskaya. The works are united by passionate patriotism , love of the main characters for the Motherland. Creating the image of the main character in the poem “Konrad Wallenrodd” Mickiewicz uses the image of Buchgard from the tragedy “Narimunt” all this indicates that Adam Mickiewicz not only knew about the work of his friends philomats, but was familiar with the works of Tekla Vrublevskaya. We can even assume that our poetess met the poet personally when he was hiding in the estate of Kostrovichskikh Dorozhkovichi near Disna.
Interestingly, each of the three published books by Vrublevskaya contained poetic sections, where the author contains his poems. It is especially possible to determine from them “Before sleep”, “Panich young”, “Before personality”, satirical “Women”, “Before a month”, “Before my squirrel”, etc.
Having promised in the preface to” Narimunt ” to continue her literary activity of her own works published by her. We don’t know what influenced it; either the criticism of her works, or the lack of money to print. But in Polotchina, the fame of the poetess remained behind Vrublevskaya, which is why, when local writers wanted to save the creative underside of the talented Yan Anoshka from oblivion, she was elected publisher – editor of the poetry collection. Our countryman was able to collect a large number of poems, edited them and published them in 1828 in Polotsk. Her preface to this collection is interesting: “living for several years in the Belarusian province, I often heard the poems of Jan Anoshka, whom I never managed to see. And then last year I found out that he was no longer alive. The noble Pan Nikolai Grebnitsky, a former marshal of the Lepel district and a knight of the Order, a real connoisseur of literature, wishing that nothing from the People’s Life would perish, prompted me to collect the poems of the Belarusian pesnyar and publish them. Burdened for many years with my problems due to poor health, I can not even do a few hours of mental work during the day. However, I took up this case, and immediately the citizens of our region, who only had the works of Anoshka, began to send me his works. In them, I made small edits only when the poet’s unrestrained pen went beyond certain areas of his life. During the clash of arms and the whirlwind of war, our poet lost much of his manuscripts…in his poems there is a happy lightness, a pleasant thought and a natural wit. The book was published thanks to a donation from the public, as Vrublevskaya writes in the preface , there are still more than 40 poetic works in her archive. All this she is ready to give to anyone who wants to print them. And although, for some unknown reason, our poetess did not sign the preface, even after 15 years, when the collection has already become a rarity, the writer R.Podberezki in the preface to the article “Belarus and Yan Borshchevsky” refers to our poetess as the publisher of the book Anoshka.
From the last known letter of Tekli Vrublevskaya, dated August 10, 1835, to the publisher Yu.To Zavadsky we learn of her request to send by subscription the works of f.Cooper’s “The Sorceress” and “The Pioneer”, and for cousin Foma Ivashkevich – “The Steppes”. The list of books she has already bought and desired for purchase is quite large. Among them are” The History of Poland “by I. Llyavel, the poem “Lara” by D. Byron, works by E. Krasinski, A. Brodinsky, etc. All this shows that our countryman still, despite the distance from the capital, lived in literature, was interested in its novelties not only in Polish, but also in French. Thus, her estate was still the largest cultural and educational center in the Disensk region. Alas, after 1835, no more information was found about our countryman.
There are different ways to evaluate the work of Tekla Vrublevskaya, but undoubtedly for the 19th century, her personality as a poet, playwright, translator and publisher remains an excellent figure, if not on a global scale, then significant for the development of literature in Belarus. The memory of her must not go to heaven.
Disenskaya gymnasium for 18 years of its existence has given our region many famous countrymen. Among them, the place of honor is occupied by Jozef Buinowski, who became a famous Polish poet, literary historian, literary critic, and essayist. He was born on March 31, 1910 in the estate of Okolitsa-Rudovo near Braslav. He received his secondary education at the Disen Gymnasium (1928-1930). In the same year, he entered Vilnius University to study philology. It was the teachers of the Disen Gymnasium who brought up Joseph’s love for poetry and literature, so the choice was made consciously. Buinovsky was one of the founders of the student magazine “Streak”, where he debuted the article “The problem of motive”. In 1934, he edited the Vilna magazine “March”. In 1935-1938, J.Buinovsky worked as a teacher at the Braslav private gymnasium. In Braslav, two collections of poems were prepared and published in the local printing house: “The Torn Path“,” A blow to the face-roses under your feet”, in which the influence of modernism is felt. In 1939, he was invited to work at the Vilnius Snydetsky Lyceum, where he taught Polish. J.Buinovsky was also the deputy director of the gymnasium and lyceum named after P. Skarga. After the beginning of the Second World War, he was mobilized into the Polish army, took part in the fighting of the first months of the war. In November 1939, he returned to teaching in Vilnius. In April 1940, he was repressed. He was held in prisons in Vilnius and Gorky. After the amnesty, he worked on a collective farm near the city of Urzhum. He fought against the Nazis as part of the Polish army of General Anders, participated in the fighting of the second corps in Italy. Received a battle award for the Battle of Monte Cassino. During the war, he continued to engage in literary work. He collaborated with military publications. J.Buinovsky in 1946 became one of the founders of the Italian section of the Polish PEN Club. In the same year, he moved permanently to England, where he was engaged in teaching and publishing literary activities. He was the head of the publishing house “Polish Literary Society”, maintained his own printing house. From 1952 he taught at the Polish Foreign University in London. In 1967-71 and 1978-85, he was the dean of the Faculty of Humanities of this university, headed the Department of Polish Literature. In 1956, he defended his PhD thesis, and in 1964, his doctoral dissertation. Since 1964. Buinovsky taught special courses at a number of higher educational institutions in England, at the universities of Amsterdam and Heidelberg. He was an active participant in a number of public organizations, since 1991 a member of the Polish PEN Club. Author of more than fifteen literary collections. While living in London, he remained a patriot of his small homeland. Until the end of his days, he kept in touch with his friends at the gymnasium, the students he taught in Braslav. He died on February 15, 2001.
The future bishop was born on February 4, 1918 in a peasant family as the fourth child. From an early age, the boy was brought up in a religious atmosphere. According to his memories, he liked to pray in nature, standing high on a rock or hill. That is why his future life became a way of serving God and people. The first two classes he studied in Yundilovo, then in Germanovichi, later in the gymnasiums of Disna and Pinsk. Here the decision to become a priest matured. His mother had a great influence on his choice. In 1937, Edward entered the Vilna Theological Seminary. Despite the hardships of the war, February 14, 1943 Receives priestly ordination. In January 1953, he defended his doctoral dissertation. On May 3, 1976, Pope Paul VI appointed our countryman titular bishop, Apostolic Administrator of the Archdiocese of Bialystok. Thanks to his support, the church in the new churchyard was restored in 1990. March 25, 1992 John Paul II confirmed Edward Kisel as metropolitan and first archbishop, but on September 29, 1993, the countryman died. The place of his native home is revered by a memorial cross.
An Orthodox priest, a victim of the Bolshevik terror, canonized in 2011 by the Belarusian Orthodox Church, a martyr for the faith.
In 1900, Konstantin Zhdanov married, was ordained a deacon, and began serving in a church in the village of Yudishchina near Sharkovshchina. When his father died, Konstantin asked the spiritual authorities for permission to go to the ministry in the Sharkov region to help his younger brothers. On April 30, 1900, at the Peter and Paul Cathedral in Kovno, he was ordained a priest, after which he became the rector of the parish in Staraya Sharkovshchina.
In the second year of his ministry, Father Konstantin began to seek support for the construction of a new church in the Old Sharkov region, as the old church was already almost falling apart. The diocesan authorities allowed the construction only in 1906. The old church was dismantled, and the new one was laid on July 3, 1908. Father Konstantin was looking for funds from people who went to work. To raise money for the iconostasis, the priest had to go to Moscow and collect donations from local entrepreneurs. The newly built Holy Dormition Church in Staraya Sharkovshchina was consecrated on November 13, 1912.
Father Constantine was a well-known preacher, devoting a lot of time to prayer. The congregation listened attentively to his sermons. The priest also taught the Law of God in three village schools, and in 1916 he began to serve as the head of the Berezvets Women’s School, which was evacuated to Sharkovshchina.
The priest continued his ministry even after the establishment of the communist government, which unleashed a brutal terror in Disna County. In the spring of 1919 (late April or early May), Father Konstantin was arrested immediately after the service and taken under escort to the county center. The Bolsheviks shot the women who tried to intercede for the priest. Father Konstantin was taken to be shot together with Father Mikhail Sinyavsky, the rector of the parish in Yazna. Father Mikhail managed to escape from the drunken guards; Father Konstantin did not try to escape. I didn’t do anything wrong. What God sends, I will endure, ” he said.
Hiding, Father Mikhail saw how drunken communists tortured Father Konstantin. The priest was beaten on the head with a shovel, his ear was cut off, the hair on his head was pulled out, and his leg was broken. Before his death, he was asked for his last wish – and the priest asked for permission to pray. After a short prayer, the priest was stunned with a strong blow and buried alive in it.
The body of Father Konstantin was buried only two months later, after Polish troops, supported by local rebels, liberated Disna County from the Communists in June 1919. The priest was buried in the basement under the altar of St. Odigitrievskoy Church in Disna.
The local population for decades kept the memory of his father Konstantin Zhdanov. In 1995, the Sharkovshchyna Church began to serve special services in memory of the priest-martyr. In 2010, Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia gave his blessing for the canonization of the priest. The solemn accession of Father Konstantin Zhdanov to the face of saints took place on June 4, 2011 in the Holy Resurrection Church of Disna. The same church now houses the relics of the martyr.
Boleslav Grams was born in the town of Kublichi, Vitebsk province, at the very beginning of our century. He studied at the St. Petersburg Gymnasium of St. Petersburg.Catherine. He did not finish his studies, most likely due to the October revolution. But he recreated it in 1922. Now he was already studying at the Vilna Theological Seminary. After that, he continued his studies at the theological department of the Stefan Batory University. He graduated with a master’s degree.
On April 4, 1931, he was ordained a priest. The life of this priest was short, but still he managed to do a lot. As a vicar, he served in Grodno, Oshmyany, and Vilnius. He wrote the work ” Chanstakhova Litovskaya. Coronation of the icon of the Mother of God of Zhirovich”. In it, the young priest showed himself to be a capable writer and an interesting researcher.
But his thirst for knowledge did not leave him. And after a while, he was already studying in Rome, devoting himself to historical research. He was interested in the union at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries, he collected material on this topic in the archives of the Vatican. He continued this work after returning to his homeland. “The Union between the second and third partitions of Poland” – that’s how he called his work.
In addition to his scientific research, Priest Grams also had a difficult priestly service-as a prefect in Svenciany, as a vicar in Bialystok, and in Vilnius.
During the Second World War, Priest Grams remained true to his vocation: to serve as a chaplain in the army, taking part in the fight against fascism. Gets captured. In the camp, he works as a priest and an orderly. After a while, he manages to escape. Priest Grams makes his way to Warsaw, where he joins the underground struggle, cooperates with the underground Polish press, but does not stop his pastoral activity, although he was forced to forge it secretly.
Yes, the native places called to themselves. He makes his way to Vilnius, where he gets an appointment to parting at Idolt. In the 30s, Priest Eliash began to build a new church here. The war interrupted the building. And it had to be completed by a new idoltsky probarschu.
Senior local residents have preserved the memory of this unusually pious, devoted to God and people priest. This priest could share with his loved one the last thing he had. Sometimes it came to the ridiculous: the mother put her son’s lunch on the table, did not hurry to go out the door, because as soon as she went-the son will definitely find someone to share the food with (those who wanted to eat during the war were enough). Or he will take and give someone his clothes or shoes. Therefore, he himself could be seen in leaky boots, in boots that barely held on to his feet. This handsome-looking priest was surprisingly easy to forget about himself .
He did not think about himself even when he helped those who fought against fascism in the Home Army. I did not think about myself, helping my brothers Jozef and Modest, who fought in this army. I certainly didn’t think about myself when I was in touch with the partisans. And, of course, when he took care of a group of Jews who were hiding from the German authorities in the nearby Perkhulev. He sent them milk, bread, and potatoes.
For all this, for the ability to forget about himself, he paid a high price-with his life. There are several versions of his arrest by the Vlasovites. Some say that he was taken because of his brothers. The second is that he was betrayed by one of the” accupants ” whom he professed. Still others – the gypsy girl who gave him away, whom he greeted with his mother at the plebania. Fourth,that it was all because of the Jews he helped…
He was arrested on June 7, 1944. The enemies brutally beat the priest, threw him on a cart and took him away-apparently to Polotsk. On the way, we stopped and had a drink in the village. They say Father Grums tried to run away. He was murdered… In memory of him, we see preserved icons in the church of Idolta, the priest was also a good artist.
Thus ended the bright life path of this priest, filled with beautiful, high deeds.
He was buried in Idolta.The then young priest Lucian Pavlik was warned by the German authorities to be quiet, without a rally. There was no rally. Of course, there were no loud speeches that would have branded the murderers. But at the funeral there were many believers from whose eyes sincere tears flowed: people mourned their priest, pastor, teacher, a man whom they had managed to love. It was June 10, 1944. Less than two months remained until the day when the last fascist formations would leave the territory of Belarus…
Priest Gramsa was buried in the churchyard, the church building of which he was finishing. Not only in the walls of this shrine, but also in the grateful memory of people, his name has been preserved forever.
The ancient family of Putyats owned one of the estates of Miora since the XVI century. In 1612, an ancestor of this family funded the chapel. At first, the Putyats were Orthodox, but from the second half of the XVII century they converted to Catholicism. It was in the family of Vincent Putyat from the Miora estate that the future priest, a scientist-theologian, was born on July 8, 1884, who was named Leon. In 1902, he graduated from the classical gymnasium in Vilnius, entered the Vilnius Theological Seminary, but did not finish, and went to Rome on the basis of treatment of an illness. Under the pseudonym Aloyza Junga studied at the Gregorian University. He successfully completed it, defended his doctoral dissertation in theology and philosophy. In 1911, he received priestly ordination. When he returned in the same year from abroad, the tsarist authorities did not approve him for the post of professor at the Vilna Theological Seminary, so he was forced to continue his studies at the St. Petersburg Theological Academy, where he received a PhD in theology. Returning to Vilna, he was appointed vicar of the Church of St. Francis, and in 1914 became rector of the German parish of St. Francis. Anna. At the same time, he worked in a secret Polish school for poor young people. In 1915, he was appointed Secretary for the church at the Diocese of Vilna. In 1915-1916, the priest-scientist Leon Putyata organized the first catechetical course for the training of secondary school teachers. In 1917, he organized and became the head of the male teachers ‘ seminary in Vilnius. He was one of the founders of the religious education program in Polish schools.
In the same year, he began working as a teacher of art history and German at the seminary. He knew the historical sites of Vilnius very well and conducted excursions for famous people (including Emperor Wilhelm II). In 1919, he joined the Committee for the Establishment of Vilnius University. Since 1922, he has worked there first as a teacher of Italian, and then as a deputy professor of theology, first pastoral, and then dogmatic. In 1932, he was nominated habilitated Professor of theology for the work “Original Sin in the theology of Anzelm”, in 1935, he was nominated for Professor extraordinary. In 1933, at the VII Congress of the Union of Theological Organizations of Vilna, Professor Putyata was elected its chairman. Thanks to him, the materials of this congress were printed, and he was also a member of the editorial board of the publication “Theological Studies”. Priest Putyata was the rector of the Church of the Augustinians, the censor of religious publications of the Diocese of Vilna, a member of the Society of Members of the Sciences in Vilnius. In life, he was very modest, financially helped the students. After the outbreak of World War II, he worked until their closure on December 12, 1939, at the university and at the theological seminary. During the occupation, he taught Latin and religion in secret grammar schools. Participated in underground work against the occupiers. Together with other professors of the Faculty of Theology, on March 3, 1942, he was arrested by the Gestapo and placed in Lukishki prison. Then they were sent to Nazi concentration camps, first in Vilkoviski, then in Shaltupi near Kaunas. Due to a serious incurable illness, on March 31, 1943, he was released and returned to Vilna. He died at the home of the sisters of the Society of the Unwavering Heart of the Virgin Mary on July 12, 1943. He was buried at the Bernardine Cemetery in Vilnius.
Archbishop, Metropolitan of Mogilev-Minsk (1847-1917). Born in 1847 in Sharkovshchina, he was baptized in the Novopogost Church. His father Adolf served as a clerk in the gmina, died quickly, and was raised by his mother Francisca from the Korsak family. He studied at the Dinaburg Gymnasium, and in 1865 entered the theological seminary in Vilna, then studied at the St. Petersburg Theological Seminary, from which he graduated with a master’s degree in theology. In 1871, he was ordained a priest. He worked as a professor at the seminary in Vilnius, where he taught dogmatics, moral theology, and sacred writing. He served as an inspector of the seminary, became a canon, and then a prelate of the Vilna Chapter. Klyuchinsky was engaged not only in church affairs, but also in active social activities and charity work. He organized assistance to orphans and the poor. In 1889, he founded in Vilna a society of people who wanted to work in the spirit of Catholicism and nationality. The structure later turned into a secret monastic unity, which was engaged in the care of orphans and foundlings who were brought up in the Catholic spirit. At that time, the condition for keeping orphans in state orphanages was mandatory Orthodox baptism. In the care of the priestly vocation, Klyuchinsky began private training of candidates for the priestly rank, in which the children had custody. In 1898, Bishop Zvirovich of Vilna sent Klyuchinsky as a representative of the Vilna diocese to the St.Petersburg Ecclesiastical College. Vincent participated in a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Egypt. In 1910, he was appointed Metropolitan of Mogilev-Minsk by Pope Pius X, and organized the activities of the Catholic Church in the largest diocese of the Russian Empire, which extended as far as Vladivostok and Sakhalin. A difficult battle with the tsarist government for the rights of Catholics began. But exhausted by the difficulties of work and illness at the end of 1913, Klyuchinsky refused the post of archbishop. The Apostolic capital accepted the refusal on 21.07.1914. To improve his health, the metropolitan goes first to the Caucasus, then to the Crimea, where he dies in Alushta in 1917. He was buried in St. Petersburg, and later his remains were moved to Vilnius.
A unique person, who is associated with almost half a century of the history of this village, was the priest of the Uzmen Church, Pavel Volyntsevich. He served here from 1904 to 1947. This name became widely known in Belarus when a collector from Minsk, Dmitry Serebrennikov, bought a collection of old photographic plates at an auction, and the photographer Vladimir Sutyagin made photographs of them. These people have done a lot of work to identify the images and study the identity of the priest.
He was born in the Grodno region in the family of a deacon. The father gave all three sons a spiritual education. Shortly after graduating from the seminary, Pavel Volyntsevich serves as a priest in Uzmen. A versatile educated person. He was interested in various sciences: physics, astronomy, chemistry, and humanities. Later, his granddaughter recalled that his grandfather always strictly set his watch on the sun. But despite his hobbies, he never violated church laws and regulations. Never drank, never smoked, never went in secular clothes, but only in church clothes. My father had a large library, where there were books of various subjects. He was engaged in beekeeping, painted oil paintings. In the photos of the interior of the house in Uzmen, we see many canvases and various interesting things. All the time the priest does not part with the camera. It actually creates a photographic record of our places. In his perfect pictures we can see the life of the family in the first half of the twentieth century, the holidays in the Svyatomikolskaya Church, the flood on the Western Dvina, priests from different churches of the Mior region, the construction of a new house, Dozhinki, family celebrations, recreation on the river. Many photos of the surrounding area have been preserved, which has now changed incomparably.
Of great importance are the images of the daily life of the local residents, their clothes, occupations, household items. Pavel Volyntsevich, together with his parishioners, experienced many tumultuous events: three revolutions, a civil war, two world wars, and the struggle against religion. All this time, he did not part with the camera and tried to record the events. After the death of his wife in 1947, he moved to the Grodno region and continued his priestly service there. In 1948, a fire broke out in his house, burning all his property. Fortunately, the photonegatives made in our area survived. During the move, he left them in Uzmen and took them only in the 50s. After the fire, our priest moved to another place and continued the service until his death in 1962, and was buried in Volkovysk. After the development of photonegatives, art historians from Minsk organized many exhibitions, which were held with great success throughout Belarus, including Miorah.
The organizer of the world’s first museum and library named after Francysk Skaryna Cheslav Sipovich was born on December 8, 1914 in d.Dedino of the modern Miora district. The Sipovich family has been known in our area since the XVI century. This name was mentioned in the signature of the troops of the INCL in 1567, but after 300 years, there was no question of any nobility. His father, Vincent, and his mother, Jadwiga, of the Tychkov family, were ordinary peasants, cultivating a small plot of land. Nine children were born in the family, but only five survived: four boys and one girl. The house where little Chesya spent his childhood years is still preserved. He is the eldest in the family and therefore from infancy learned the difficulties of peasant labor. He studied at an ordinary Polish village school. The teacher taught the children in the spirit of Polish patriotism. Where did Czeslaw get his national identity from? First of all, she brought up the environment itself. At that time, everyone in the village spoke Belarusian. My mother, although illiterate, knew many Belarusian folk songs by heart and could compose poems herself. The Belarusian Source newspaper, priest and poet Pyotr Prostoy had a great influence on the young man. But the greatest importance in the education of the national consciousness was played by his meeting with the Belarusian priests who lived in the Marian Monastery in Drui. Noticing Prague’s unusual interest in knowledge, they invited Czeslaw to study at the Druj Gymnasium in 1928. True, the education here was conducted in Polish, but thanks to the priests Joseph Germanovich, Kazimir Smulko, Andrei Tikot, the Belarusian spirit reigned in the gymnasium. When Cheslav came to his native village on vacation, he introduced his brothers and local youth to Belarusian literature, sang native songs, especially “Oi rechenka-rechenka”. His brother Jan told about such a case: the feelings were so overwhelmed by the guy that he climbed up on a high birch tree and recited Belarusian poems with all his might. As the best student of the gymnasium, in 1935, Cheslav Sipovich entered the Faculty of Philosophy and Theology of the University of Vilna, which he successfully completed in 1938, and again his abilities were noticed, and, as the best graduate, he was sent to study at the Italian Gregorian University. Since 1942, he has been studying at the Pontifical Oriental Institute in Rome. At that time, there was a war and our countryman does not stay away from the fight against fascism, participates in the Belarusian national liberation movement. In 1946, he defended his doctoral dissertation on the famous religious figure of Belarus, Metropolitan Smagorzhevsky. Thanks to his abilities, he mastered 16 languages, but he could not devote his talent directly to the motherland, because at that time there was a fierce struggle against religion in Belarus, churches were closed and destroyed, and priests were arrested and sent to Stalin’s camps. That is why, after the war, he moved to England, where at that time there were many compatriots. Cheslav abroad unites Balarus-priests, with L. Goroshk and P. Tataranovich creates the magazine “God’s Way”. First the employee, and then the editor-in-chief. Already in one of the first issues of the magazine in 1947, he published an article ” Fundamentals of Belarusian Patriotism”, which has not lost its relevance to this day. Here are the lines from there: “in the word Fatherland, the culture of the people, its customs and rituals, which have been extracted for centuries and deeply experienced, is hidden, as if enchanted. Perhaps the Fatherland is a glorious one out of the unbroken mountains and out of the natural wealth,but its true greatness, which rises from our people, no one will yield. The glory of the Fatherland is created by those who were able to rise above the crowd in moral and social life, in science and art”” In this article, he gives his explanation of patriotism, its difference from nationalism and chauvinism, renegade and cosmopolitanism. He sees the basis of Belarusian patriotism in the formula: “God-fathers-Batkivshchyna”. Only on such principles can a real Belarusian be brought up. Their violation leads to renunciation of the motherland, betrayal of the interests of their people. Aware of the great potential of religion to preserve the whole national, Sipovich in England creates an organization of the Greek Catholic Church. Since 1948, he has been carrying out his plan. Thanks to donations from Belarusians and personal savings, he is building the church of Saints Peter and Paul in London. This is the first Greek Catholic church of Tomash with original architecture. It contains an interesting icon of the XV century. Belarusian believers unite around the church, not only from England, but also from other countries of the world. Sipovich is a member of the Association of Belarusians of Great Britain, where he conducts a lot of public work. A Belarusian society is being created. Our fellow countryman dreams of founding, as in Druya, a Marian religious and cultural center, where Belarusians in a foreign land would cultivate national consciousness. At the invitation of Sipovich, his friends from other countries of the world come to London: Felis Zhurnev, Nikolai Bogovich, Tomas Padyava. Joseph Germanovich returns from the Siberian Stalinist camps.
In 1960, the Pope solemnly appointed Czeslaw Sipowicz bishop of the Greek Catholic Church. For the first time in 150 years, Belarusian Greek Catholics receive their own bishop. Our fellow countryman also became an inspector of all Belarusian churches in the West. One of the first things the bishop did was to create a hostel for boys of Belarusian origin, so that they could grow up in their native atmosphere. Czeslaw Sipowicz is a member of the commission on religious reform at the Second Vatican Council. He travels around the world twice, visiting Belarusian churches, communities and societies in Canada, Argentina, Brazil, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, etc. But we will make the mistake of saying that Czeslaw was only concerned with religious matters. Wherever he was, he collected documents, books, manuscripts, and icons for the future museum and library. Thanks to donations from foreign Belarusians, in 1971 he created the Francysk Skaryna Library and Museum. It is hard to even imagine that in such unfavorable conditions, far from the Motherland, without having enough funds, the real treasures of Belarusian culture are collected. The museum has a large numismatic collection, rare editions of our first printer, Belarusian books of the XVI-XVIII centuries, manuscripts of Yanka Kupala and other famous writers and public figures of the XX century, documents of the XVI-XVIII centuries, Slutsk belts, and Belarus did not have any. Meanwhile, at home, his dedication was called espionage for the benefit of the CIA. In the last 10 years of his life, Sipovich was seriously ill, but still did not stop actively serving the community. He spent all his free time in the library and museum, where he was engaged in scientific activities, revealing unknown pages of Belarusian history, culture and religion. Despite heart disease, he participates in international conferences, symposia, and makes pilgrimages. On October 4, 1981, guests from all over the world gathered to celebrate the tenth anniversary of his museum-library. Cheslav Sipovich still managed to serve the solemn liturgy, and on this day his heart could not stand it and stopped forever. By the last minute of his life, he dreamed of returning to his homeland, which he left in 1938. he corresponded with his brother, sister, and tribesmen. In his letters, one can hear not only longing for Belarus, but also an instruction to young relatives not to shun their native language, to be proud of the history of the Fatherland. Here are the lines from his letter to his relatives, written in 1981: “I have been to many places, but I have not found the nicest corner outside of Belarus!”And then he quotes the famous poet’s poem “oh, my native land, a beautiful, sweet corner of my grandfathers”. After the death of Sipovich, his business did not fade away. The library and museum continue to exist. And in the homeland of Dedin, his sister Fel died a few years ago and the house is now empty. It would be nice to make a museum there in honor of the famous countryman. The interesting building of the former Dedinsky school of the 30s of the XX century is also falling into disrepair. The village of Dedina is a peculiar phenomenon in the number of outstanding personalities who were born here. On the Internet, we found a mention of Alexander Doroshkevich from these places. As a member of the 1st Army of the Polish Army in 1945, he was the first to raise the Polish flag over Warsaw, which was liberated from the Nazis. Documents about him, photos are placed in the museum of the Polish Army. The organizer of the cultural and educational society of Belarusians in distant Argentina, Gaylevich, also came from Dedin.
Priest-Canon Jozef Borodich did not spend long pastoral activity on the Mior land, but the greatness of his efforts did not fade a century later. The main information about him we took first of all from the three books of his memoirs, which he wrote throughout his life.
The future priest and builder of the stone Miora church was born on June 13, 1863 in the estate of Shovkishki in the Kovno province. So he wrote in the book “on the cart and under the cart”, Krakow, 1911. But in his memoirs “Kresy Vilensky in danger”, published in Vilnius in 1930, he gave the year of birth 1861, and the city of birth — Warsaw. Therefore, you need to agree with the last date. His father and mother were active participants in the national liberation movement, in order to avoid punishment by Siberian penal servitude, they left Novogrudok for Warsaw, where the future priest was born.
He received his initial education from his parents. The family was very pious and therefore raised two priests. In addition to Jozef, his brother John became a Catholic priest. From an early age, Jozef Borodic worked hard, first in Panevezys, where his parents moved, then in Kaunas (Kaunas). After collecting 600 rubles, he went to study in the city of Orel, where he received a certificate of graduation from the gymnasium. First, in 1892, he tried to enter the seminary in Kaunas, but failed the exams in the Russian language. I went to look for opportunities to enter a seminary in Vilnius. This city had a great influence on the young Borodich. Here, despite the repression of the tsarist authorities, many Catholic shrines have been preserved. The desire to become a priest was caused by the study and acquaintance with the activities of bishops Krasinski and Lobenski, heroic figures of martyrs for the country and faith Mickiewicz, Kalinowski, Plyater, Wolowicz, Dombrowski and others. In 1893, Jozef entered the Vilna Theological Seminary. The reconciliation of the priest took place in the famous chapel of the Mother of God of Ostrobram in Vilna in 1897. The young priest was sent as a vicar to the church in Nemenchina, where he conducted pastoral activities from October 1897 to September 1898. Since the churches close to Nemenchin were closed after Muravyov’s repressions, the parish numbered about 10 thousand believers. Its abbot, the elderly Priest Shimkevich, did not have the strength to perform all the duties. That is why the young vicar, with all his energy, began to carry out pastoral activities. After a few months of catechization, 1,270 children started their first communion! Noticing that drunkenness flourishes in the parish, the young priest begins an active struggle with this evil, and lays the brotherhood of sobriety. Such active activity immediately caused concern of the Russian authorities-chauvinists and gendarmes began to write denunciations to the governor, so Borodich is sent as a vicar to Lida. In vain the parishioners wrote petitions to leave the priest in Nemenchina — the tsarist authorities did not cancel their orders. The respect that Jozef Borodic earned in less than a year is evidenced by the fact that parishioners took him to Lida 100 kilometers away on carts decorated with flowers. In Lida, where the churches and the surviving monastery were also closed after the uprising, the parish of the only surviving church numbered 18 thousand believers. But Russification activities through schools, churches and the government have led to negative phenomena among Catholics. To strengthen the Orthodox faith, the priests were given 50 rubles for the burial of a Catholic according to the Orthodox rite. It often happened that with the help of the gendarmes, the priest was buried in the cemetery, and the Catholic priest was escorted to Plebania. The young vicar also actively began to oppose the policy of the Russian authorities. In a few months, he catechized 670 children. He strengthened the Catholic faith through confession, visiting the sick and during caroling. The priest was denounced to the governor again. It was also used that the portrait of Prince Alexander Nevsky disappeared from the church, which was forcibly placed in the Catholic church by the tsarist authorities. Having appeared with the order from the governor to Borodich, the police police officer even recited the following lines:”for Lida vices, go to Troki, and from Troki-directly to the prison “” Since the parishioners did not want to let the vicar go, the police, in order to prevent outrage, took the priest out of the plebania “by the back door” and secretly brought him to the railway station. In Trakai, Borodich served only three months from January to March 1899, but not far from Vilnius, police supervision was very strict, so Bishop Zverovich of Vilna directs Borodich away from the provincial city to the small Lithuanian settlement of Dovgalyshki. Only for a short time he worked here. For active not only pastoral, but also patriotic activities, Vicar Borodich was taken under the escort of two gendarmes to the Franciscan monastery in Grodno, where he remained in prison from August 1899 to August 1900. The monastery was not closed by the Russian authorities only to enslave Catholic priests who dared to carry out pastoral activities against Orthodoxy and the authorities. Father Jozef was confined in a musty, damp cell, which, like a real prison, was locked up. He could only say Mass in the morning. The year of imprisonment for such an active figure as Borodich lasted a very long time. From the window of his dungeon, he could only observe the walls of the Grodno Castle and the Neman River. Some consolation was brought by the visit of the priest-prisoner by the famous writer Eliza Ozheshko, who gave him a stack of books, which slightly reduced his free will. During the year, only once did he leave the monastery to confess a sick Lithuanian woman, since there were no Catholic priests in Grodno at that time who knew the Lithuanian language. This happened with great difficulty, because it was necessary to have the permission of the governor himself and an escort of gendarmes. Already in the monastery, his talent as a priest-writer was manifested. He wrote the manuscript of the little book “The rosary in honor of the Heart of Jesus and the Blessed Virgin Mary”. He dedicated it to Bishop Stefan-Alexander Zverovich of Vilna. In 1901, it was printed at the expense of the author in the Warsaw printing house of V. Nemira and Sons. Even for permission to print, Borodich paid the Russian censor 50 rubles.
After his imprisonment in the monastery, the priest visited Rome, where Pope Leon XIII blessed him for his missionary work. On his return from Rome, Bishop Zverovich of Vilna awarded Priest Borodich with a golden cross presented by the parishioners of Lida. But the tsarist authorities in every possible way continued to hinder the Patriot priest, in Vilna, he, being the rector of the church of St. Jakub, could not even publicly hold holy mass. The Vilna ordinary then sent Borodich as a vicar to Josli, where he conducted pastoral work from October 1900 to August 1901. The parish was dominated by Lithuanians. But immediately in his first sermon, the priest brought to the parishioners that he is not a Pole, not a Lithuanian, but only a Catholic priest, so everyone can talk to him in the church in the language spoken in his home. This united the believers, and donations were collected in a short time. And in six weeks, the walls of the shrine were built, soon the roof, and the foundation for it stood for several years. The majority of the population in Josli was Catholic, so Borodich had no particular run-ins with the authorities. But the quiet life did not last long. In August, he is sent by Bishop Zverovich to the parish in Klyushany to build a church and a plebania there. The Vilnius governor did not approve Borodich for the position of abbot, so he was appointed as if temporarily, only acting. The parish in Klyushchany numbered 3,000 faithful Lithuanians,Poles, and Belarusians, all illiterate and very poor, as the land was poor. The church was wooden, old and abandoned, like the plebania, and was 450 years old. (Actually built in the XVIII century. – Approx. Out.). Once again, the priest’s great organizational skills were shown, he was able to organize local people for the construction of the shrine. He himself did not shy away from work, sometimes together with the faithful on horses for 50 versts he carried the necessary wood for construction. In two years, he managed to rebuild a wooden church in the Gatytsko-Zakopansky style, in addition to the plebania, and a house for church services. On the pediment, two towers were installed instead of one octagonal bell tower. Three altars are equipped in a new way. The church has served the faithful for more than a hundred years, unfortunately, a merciless flame in 2014 destroyed this monument of wooden architecture. In Klyushchany, the priest also fights against drunkenness, lays down a temperance society. And in this parish, Jozef Borodich actively strengthened the Catholic faith, opposed the Russian authorities, who spread and supported only Orthodoxy.
A vivid example of this is the reconstruction of the Orthodox church on the church in Zhelyadi. Therefore, under the oppression of the tsarist authorities, the bishop of Vilna, Edward Baron von Ropp, sends a restless priest to the Disensk region, where the majority of the population was Orthodox. But here, too, he was able to build a magnificent stone temple and a plebania. We wrote about this in detail above. Once again, the Russian authorities, for their active activity in converting former uniates to the Catholic faith, transfer Borodich as a priest to the parish of subbotniki. The persecution of the restless Catholic priest continues, as his activities have done great harm to the authority of the dominant religion. Yes, in Josli and in Miory, he even took a ride on a cart pulled by Orthodox priests in all their vestments. Nine court cases were opened against the priest. Two trials have been launched against him in Pskov and Grodno. Before their completion, Priest Borodich was exiled to the Yaroslavl province for three years. The restless priest also launched an active activity in exile, because even in the hinterland of the Russian Empire there were many Catholics, primarily Poles, exiled for their participation in the national liberation struggle. There, our priest actively conducts recollections, catechisms, and raises funds for the construction of a Catholic church in Rybinsk and a chapel in Myshkin. His work gained popularity among the Orthodox, because he was not afraid to visit and confess patients with cholera, to conduct the Orthodox on their last journey free of charge for the poor, who did not have the money to pay.
Having experience in the construction of a stone temple in Miory, he contains alerts in various newspapers, appeals for donations for the construction of the shrine, prints and distributes “tsegelki” and icons, the money from their sale also went to the temple.
In a short time, with donations from different parts of the Russian Empire, a majestic church was built in Rybinsk, which, according to the priest himself, was the most beautiful of all the 12 Catholic shrines he built.
The building of the temple has miraculously survived to our time, although it does not serve its intended purpose. In addition to the church, a stone two-story plebania was built. On one floor lived a priest, the second was rented out, the funds from which went to the maintenance of the priest and the church. Despite the fact that Borodich was exiled from Rybinsk, he came here with a black beard attached, and continued to manage the construction.
Although after the Yaroslavl province, the restless priest was sentenced to imprisonment in the Aglon Monastery in Latvia. In his book “on the cart and under the cart”, the priest describes in detail the prejudice of the tsarist judicial system. Russian courts in Hrodna and Pskov have sentenced a priest-fighter for the Catholic faith to prison in the fortress of Dinaburg for humiliating the autocracy, the Orthodox Church and the active conversion of Orthodox believers to Catholicism. On the way to the fortress, with the help of Priest Chok, Borodich managed to escape and, thanks to a bribe to a Russian border guard of one silver ruble, successfully left the borders of the Russian Empire and reached Krakow, which was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Here he studied philosophy at the famous Jagiellonian University, and at the same time took care of 150 orphans from the orphanage in Pavlikovitsy. Thanks to the orphan’s Borodich, the house paid off its debts and the children were better provided with supplies and clothing. It was at this time that he wrote the first book of his memoirs “under the cart and on the cart”, which he printed at his own expense in the printing house of M. Zembinskaya.
After graduation, he was invited by Polish immigrants to the city of Sanremo. With the permission of the Vilna Ordinary, Bishop Michalkiewicz was given the opportunity to conduct pastoral activities in Italy among Polish emigrants. His exelence, the Priest-Bishop Daffra, appointed Borodich as the rector of the seven-thousandth parish of St. Roch in San Remo. The shrine required repairs, and so our priest again began to actively act, to collect money. A total of 5,343 lire 95 sentim were collected. The money remaining after the repairs, amounting to 2,464 lire, was given to Borodich as a fee, but he refused and placed it at the disposal of Bishop Duffre. On May 1, 1914, Borodich’s own sister, Anna, by her husband Shkultynov, sent her brother from the United States 100 thousand liras for the construction of the villa”Polonia”. In addition to the villa, Borodich builds a small Gothic church, a free Information Office, organizes the publication of the newspaper ” Pole on the Riviera”, organizes a library, and during the war in 1915, creates the Polish People’s Committee with the permission of the Italian Foreign Minister Orlando, began to issue Polish passports.
The villa featured a Large White Eagle-the coat of arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the image of which was later used on passport seals. The active pro-Polish activities of Priest Borodich in Italy did not remain without the attention of the tsarist authorities. The Russian ambassador to Italy, Schers, with the help of tsarist intelligence agents, sends Borodich to a concentration camp in Florence, from there directly to Odessa, as the Polish military mission later said” ” to be shot” “ But the ship “Manuel Calve”, on which the priest was sailing, was hit by a German mine. Sailors from an English ship rescued the drowning men and brought them to Constantinople. During the rescue from the sinking ship, the priest lost all his property and documents, and remained in his underwear. The English sailor, taking pity, gave him a jacket. Borodich was rescued from prison by the Polish Consul General Antoni Sverzhbinsky. He took him to the papal nuncio and introduced him as a priest. He did not believe it at first, but Borodich’s knowledge of Latin convinced the nuncio that he was a Catholic priest. He arranges for Priest Jozef in the colony of Polish emigrants in Adampol, who have been without a pastor for four years. After the declaration of independence of Poland, Father Borodich is sent to this country as the first diplomatic courier from the East, bringing seven suitcases of diplomatic mail to Warsaw. But even in independent Poland, the persecution of the restless priest began. What his detractors not only did not accuse him of: and that he does not have a priestly certificate, and that he was an agent first of the Tsarist Okhrana, and then of the Bolshevik Cheka, that he had financial abuses in San Remo, etc.Many journalists bought by the enemies of the priest wrote various slanderous articles about him. Father Borodich summoned his enemies to the so-called court of honor. The Court of Honor on April 29, 1925 found him not guilty of the charges and called on the Polish authorities, the Polish episcopate and the press to support the priest. Pope Pius XI also wrote a letter in support of Jozef Borodic. The believers from Disna county remembered their pastor well almost 20 years later, and 5,000 signatures were collected in support of him, not only from Catholics, but also from representatives of other faiths. The positive decision of the court case allowed Father Borodich to finally visit the Vilna region, which became his native land, after 20 years. The local people triumphantly met the priest everywhere. From the station Druya 25 kilometers, but the faithful built 38 gates, under which the inhabitants of the surrounding villages greeted their dear priest. Unable to return and work as a priest in Miory, Borodich received permission from the Metropolitan of Vilna to conduct pastoral activities in Leonpol and the surrounding area. Knowing how important churches are for believers, where you can satisfy your soul with a meeting with the Lord God, Priest Borodich begins to actively build churches and chapels over the Dvina. Once the Uniate churches dominated here, but after the suppression of the uprising of 1830-1831, the Uniates were forcibly converted to Orthodox, the Uniate churches became Orthodox churches. Therefore, to return the former Uniates to Catholicism, thus to strengthen the Polish state, as well as to fight against communist ideas that spread from beyond the Dvina, where there was an atheistic Soviet Union-such tasks were set by the restless priest — fighter for the Roman Catholic church. And a true miracle of God happened: in two and a half months, thanks to the efforts of the priest, six wooden churches and chapels were built in the Mior region. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the opposition of a part of the Orthodox population, as happened in Leonpol, when Borodich tried to build a church on the site of the murder of the Leonpol Uniates by the Cossacks. At the same time, the Polish authorities, in order to prevent a conflict, sided with the Orthodox population, arrested the priest’s supporters and placed them in Lukishki prison. Borodich received complaints to various authorities, and more than 80 of them accumulated in a few weeks. Numerous accusatory articles were written against the priest, not only in opposition newspapers, but also in state-owned ones, such as the Courier Vilensky.
Only the priest was adamant, he achieved his goal by building six shrines. An excellent organizer first sent Carpenters to make log cabins for future churches right in the forest, so that they would be easier to transport and only compose. The local population enthusiastically responded to Borodich’s call to erect shrines. Despite the hot summer season, gravel, stones, and foundations for future temples were brought in. The new construction was to be consecrated by the Bishop of Yablzhikovsky, so roads were repaired and bridges were built for the passage of his car. At the request of the parishioners of the future churches, Jozef Pilsudski and the ministers from Warsaw were invited to the ceremony. On August 16, 1927, the consecration of the newly built shrines began.
Bishop Yablzhikovsky left Disna and first consecrated the church in Bobolovo, then in Zastarintsy. Everywhere his Exelence was welcomed not only by Catholics, but also by Orthodox and Jews. From Zastarintsev, the bishop came to the church in Miory and marveled at the majestic and beautiful building of the stone shrine, which was created thanks to Priest Borodich in one year. The next morning, the bishop consecrated the church in Bogudenki, the tower of which looked beautiful in the mirror of Lake Orca. After that, there was a celebration of the consecration of the church in Potashna, which dominated the surrounding area with its high 15-meter tower. Then there was a solemn meeting of the bishop in Leonpol, where he was greeted by the voit of the Gmina Orlovsky, especially the bishop liked the poem by Pani Jadwiga Karanevskaya about the priest Borodich.
Then Rabbi Boruch Shugol greeted the Bishop of Leonpol in Hebrew. The priest-bishop also greeted him in Hebrew. Father Borodich also addressed the audience, who spoke about the difficult historical past of the region, when people gave their lives for the faith, including the seven martyrs of Leonpol who were killed for the faith. He recalled that in independent Catholic Poland there were enemies who prevented him from building a church in Leonpol on the grave of the martyrs. Bishop Yablzhikovsky in his speech to those present at the celebration welcomed not only Catholics, but also Orthodox, Jews, spoke about unity, thanked for the joint work on the construction of churches over the Dvina River, he expressed special gratitude to the Orthodox from the village of Sloboda, who collected donations for the bell for the church in Bobolov. The telegram of the head of the Polish state was also read out as follows: “To the priest-Canon Borodich in Leonpol. Not being able to personally come to the celebration of the consecration of the newly built churches in Bobolov, Zastarintsy, Bogudenki, Potashna, Leonpol, I express my deep words of sincere gratitude to the priest-canon for the work done. Be sure that on such a joyful day for you, like today, or on days that are difficult for you, your thoughts and heart are always with you. Jozef Pilsudski. Marshal of Poland “” Telegrams of similar content were sent from the President of the country Ignatius Mastitsky, the Priest-Cardinal Primate of Poland Glond, the Minister of Savoy-Skladovsky, the Minister of Foreign Affairs Zalessky and from many other leading persons from the Polish government. After the departure of the bishop, Priest Borodich remains for another month to release the residents of Leonpol who were convicted for the faith and to transfer the property and shrines to the bishop-appointed priest-administrator Malakhovsky. Jozef Borodic himself will go to Volhynia, where he also meets with priests, Catholic believers, to confront the detractors of the Roman Catholic Church. The result of this trip was another book he published in Polish: “in Galician Russia, schism is being prepared” “” Look how well they lived near Moscow”” About the trip to Latvia, he writes a book “Polish Inflyants”. When the elections to the Polish Sejm began next year, Priest Borodich put forward his candidacy from four counties: Disnensky, Braslav, Postavsky, Sventsyansky, conducts active election campaigning, in which he calls on voters not to succumb to communist influences, to adhere to the Catholic faith and the Polish state. The popularity of our priest was great, and he could easily have been elected to the Sejm, but due to political considerations, Bishop Yablzhikovsky ordered Priest Borodich to withdraw his candidacy, and he was forced to comply. In 1928, the restless priest remained as before in the Vilna region without a parish. The priest-bishop allowed him only to say mass and to confess in the churches. Mostly Borodich did this in the Miory, where he was favourably treated by Priest Dzekan Romuald Svirkovsky, and in Klyushchany, where he catechized children, as he once did 25 years ago, serving as the rector here, catechized their parents. An interesting project was attempted at this time by a restless priest. American friends promised him 200 thousand dollars to buy a car-van, which could be converted into a mobile church. This is what missionaries in America used to do. Borodich liked the idea, because really in those days, when the churches were at a distance of 20 kilometers, it was difficult for old women and young children to get to the shrine, and with the help of a car-van, it was possible to fulfill religious needs at any distance. With a similar project, our priest applied for permission to the Episcopate of Poland, but received a negative response. In the following year, 1929, after receiving numerous invitations from the Druj parishioners and the permission of the Bishop of Yablzhikovsky, Priest Jozef Borodich went to Druj to rebuild the church of St. Anthony. Creates a committee for the construction of the church, organizes the collection of donations, and the parishioners begin to dig up the foundations of the former church of St. Anthony and the church of the Dominicans, which was blown up by the tsarist authorities in 1908.
But there was a misunderstanding with the Belarusian priests-Marians, who were against Borodich building a second church in Druya. The ecclesiastical authorities are against our restless zealot, ordering him to abandon the stream. The predicate of the request of the priest-Bishop Springovich in Latvia to organize the construction of a church in Varnavichi, the priest Borodich is sent to the Latvian side of the Western Dvina. During the holy Mass, he preached a sermon in Lithuanian and Polish, the priest-Latvian in Latvian, since the parish was mixed, there were believers of three nationalities. Speeches in three languages united everyone to build the temple. Immediately, 1000 lats were collected for the construction of Amal. Already in the first week, the parishioners brought 3,000 vases of gravel and sand. Since the parish was poor, our priest got permission from the bishop to print addresses, icons and “tsegelki” for donations.
In the meantime, there was not enough money collected, Borodich for his own purchases two cars of cement and a complaint. Reading the recollection of the priest, you are convinced of how much power, perseverance, and energy the almost seventy-year-old priest had to have in order to overcome all the obstacles for the speedy construction of the shrine. The obstacles here were the hell of the power of Latvian nationalists, the hell of distrustful ministers,and the hell of unscrupulous individuals. So, for example, the first car of cement was not the brand that was ordered by Borodich, the architect Pavlov, although he signed the project for the construction of the temple, but, having no experience in the new technology, refused to be the head of construction. Father Borodich really invented a new fast process of building a church: pouring concrete into iron structures. In Europe, this technology was already widespread, and during the First World War, the Germans used it in the construction of fortifications. When he is sure that the project he has chosen is correct, the priest sends the question to the bishop and the ministers to participate in the celebration of the consecration of the church on November 3, 1929.
At this time, the storm filled up the old building of the church, and the faithful, led by Borodich, solemnly transferred the sacred gifts, icons and other rivers five kilometers away to the newly built church. The shrine was also built by parishioners from Braslav, Piedrui, Leinbor and other places. It was collected by Borodich himself, and also at the expense of levied 14 thousand lats. As planned, on November 3, there was a solemn consecration of the church in the presence of numerous priests and believers from the neighbors. The new church was consecrated by Priest Dzekan Kiselis. Along the way, a monument to Polish soldiers who died in the Soviet-Polish War of 1920 was opened and consecrated.
Through all the hard times, the church was built thanks to Priest Jozef Borodich and continues to serve people. A week later, Priest Borodich says goodbye to his parishioners in Varnavichi and goes to help build a shrine in Kroshina in the Brest region. By winter, the foundations were laid there, and in the spring, Borodich’s own brother, Priest Jan Borodich, had already finished building the sanctuary. From now on, our priest spends the winter in the warm San Remo, where he not only engages in spiritual work, but also takes care of Polish emigrants, patronizes various shelters for the elderly and the sick. Here, in his property, he built a church and a plebania with 60 rooms, a garden and a vegetable garden, which he laid out in 1914. His parish in Sanremo is so large in area that it is located in two states-Italy and France. In order to better visit his parishioners, the sick and the elderly, Priest Borodich fills his car and at the age of 70 he learns to drive it himself. The church in San Remo was originally designated bikup Dafra for believers of different nationalities-French, Italians, English, Germans, Poles, etc. The skin ones had their own schedule of holy masses in their languages. For Poles and Lithuanians, Borodich himself conducted the mass on TV. Despite his age, he actively participates in Catholic conferences and Eucharistic congresses in Cartagena, Tunisia. But the skin summer comes to the Vilna region, which has become his native land, where he conducts catechism, recollections, since he does not have a permanent parish. The strength of the priest’s spirit as a person is evidenced by his journey by car without a driver from San Remo to Warsaw, and then to Vilna, and from Vilna to Merzyna. At the same time, he had to overcome snowstorms in the Alps, poor conditions in the Vilna region, and the lack of a sufficient number of gas stations. Several times I got into accidents, and Allo achieved his goal. His last visit to Mershchyna took place in the summer of 1939. When the war began, just in the car died of gasoline. Leaving the car and hiring a few horses, the priest managed to get to Vilnius, and then to San Remo. Having withstood all the trials of life, leaving behind a better memory-the church in Merah, which still serves people, went to eternal rest to the master according to unverified data in San Remo.
The parallels and meridians of my continent were also enriched by the shelter in 1889 of the Czech scholar-Slavist, folklorist Adolf Cherny. In 1895, he published the achievements of visiting a Land that was not yet well versed in the Slavic world-the collection “Belarusian songs from the Disnensky Uyezd of the Vilna province”.
He also published “Vzpominki z Litvy a Belorusi”(“memories from Lithuania and Belarus”). And in 1897, Adolf Cherny again visited the land of the former Grand Duchy. He wrote articles to inform readers about the awakened land in 1906, 1909. He gives an interesting scientific analysis in the publication “national and literary Belarusian aspirations” (1911). The Belarusian theme is also present in the journal “Slavic Review”, which he founded.
And here comes to me from the web a study that Marcelo Cherny wrote: “Adolf Cherny and Belarusian literature”. A perfect scientific story about the publicist, poet, translator and scientist Adolf Cherny. So, he translated the poem by Yakub Kolas “Our native land”, “Already growing old” by Yanka Kupala. I did not beat Aloisa Pashkevich. Tishka Gartny published in Berlin in 1922 the book “Songs of Labor and Struggle”. Adolf the Black used it, too.
I liked such an important conclusion of Marcellus Cherny that Adolf Cherny is the founder of Czech Belarusian studies. And this means: he is the discoverer of the spiritual treasures of Belarusians as a nation for the Universe, he is a sincere, reliable defender of Belarusians from various obscurantists. Such awakeners were needed in the country of President Masaryk. We appreciate them in today’s Belarus as well.
Vaclava was born on November 20, 1920 in the town of Germanovichi, where she graduated from a semi-technical school. In 1934-1938, she studied at the Disna Gymnasium. In 1938-1939, she studied at the lyceum. She actively participated in the Harzer movement and the solidarity of Mariansk.. After the arrival of Soviet power, she studied at a Soviet school, which she completed in 1941. She started working as a teacher in her homeland in Germanovichi. In 1946, fearing the removal of the family to the depths of Russia, together with her parents, she went to live in the Polish city of Gorzow, later moved to Gdansk, where she married A.T.Kovczynski, an employee of the Polytechnic Institute in Gdansk. At the same time, he is studying at the Higher Pedagogical School in Krakow at the Faculty of Slavic Studies, is undergoing an internship in France, and is defending his doctoral dissertation on the topic ” The influence of French literature on Slavic philology of the 19th century.”” Then the family moved to Lublin, where her husband was appointed dean of the Construction Faculty of the Polytechnic Institute. Wanda Kovczynska works at the Faculty of Human Studies at the Marie Sklodowska –Curie University of Lublin. Until retirement. Many scientific papers. In retirement, she wrote articles on the history of the Disney Gymnasium.
Pogostka land remembered many outstanding scientists and figures: V.Lastovsky, B.Turonok, E.Kisel, G.Titovich. From the younger generation of graduates of the Novopogost Secondary School, we want to tell you about Vladimir Leonardovich Skukovsky, a doctor of Humanistic Sciences, who now lives and works in Poland. Our countryman was born in the Tretyakov dungeon near the village of Novgorody on October 30, 1938. The Tretyaks have long been a folwark of the Skukovskys, at the beginning of the 20th century they had 130 acres of land for 13 inhabitants .. According to the census of 1931, the Tretyaks were already a dungeon, there were three houses, where 24 residents lived. Vladimir’s father was a zastenkov nobleman and came from Poles who held various positions in St.Petersburg. My mother came from a noble family of Fedorovichs of the “Feber” coat of arms. Vladimir’s grandmother Antonina Parfenovich came from Kamianpol. To this day, the picturesque landscapes from childhood have been preserved in the memory. The dungeon was surrounded by tall trees, which testified to the antiquity of the settlement. There was always a nest of storks in one of the trees. From three sides to the dungeon nadyzodili dense forests and tall trees near the houses were a landmark for travelers. Our countryman will always remember the horns of a steam locomotive, the railway passed through Neptune, and in the evening and on holidays, the euphonious bells of the Novopogostky church were heard. Even now, more than 60 years later, Vladimir Leonardovich remembers the smells of his small homeland, the street of which was buried in the spring in the thickets of bird cherry, yazmin, lilac, and flowering gardens. And the carpets of the local meadows probably held all the flora and fauna. Skukovsky studied after the war in primary schools in the villages of Yundilovo, Ostrov, Kovalevshchyna, and Novgorod. Now there are no schools left here. He finished high school in novy pogost. With great gratitude, Vladimir Leonardovich remembers the teachers of this school, Felix Lavchanovsky and Faina Komarova. After graduating from high school in 1956, the family moved permanently to Poland. In 1958, he entered the Faculty of Slavic Studies at the University of Wroclaw, from which he successfully graduated in 1963, receiving a master’s degree in Russian Philology. The topic of the master’s thesis was the study of the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. After graduating from the university, he worked as a teacher in various educational institutions and at the same time engaged in scientific activities. In 1983, he received the degree of Doctor of Humanistic Sciences. He worked on it at the University of Lublin under the supervision of Professor T.Rott-Zhabrovsky, who comes from the Germanovich Sharkovshchinsky district. The topic of the doctoral work was the study of the philology, phonetics and morphology of the Pskov judicial charter of 1467. The dissertation was highly appreciated by the specialists of Professor M. Lesev from Lublin and Professor V. Witkowski from Krakow. Vladimir Skukovsky is the author of more than 50 scientific articles and monographs devoted primarily to the study of the paleography of the Old Russian script of the 14th and 15th centuries. The most significant of them, donated to the Museum of Books and Prints of Secondary School No. 3 in Miory. Our fellow countryman is the author of more than 15 methodological developments for students of both philological and other faculties. Vladimir Skukovsky’s research interests include the study of the problems of poetry and ancient grammar. Living in Poland, our countryman does not forget his homeland, where he spent his childhood and youth. He heads the department of the Society of Braslavians in Olsztyn, organizes trips of natives to their homeland. With the active participation of our fellow countryman, an interesting biluten Braslavsko-Olshtyn is issued once a month, where many interesting materials are printed on the history of the Miorschina, which was part of the Braslav uyezd until 1939.
Edmund Kuzinovich was born in Vilnius in 1925, but soon his parents moved permanently to Disna. It was in this city that Edmund spent his childhood and youth. In 1939, he successfully graduated from the semi-technical school and passed the entrance exams to the gymnasium. After the arrival of the Soviet government, he studied at the Russian ten-year school. In 1944, he was taken to work in Germany. After the war, he completed his secondary education in the Polish city of Slupsk. Then the lyceum for adults named after King Boleslav Krivoustoy. In 1954, he graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Wroclaw. He worked as an assistant at the Voivodeship Hospital in Wroclaw, then as an adjunct at the orthopedic clinic of the Medical Academy in that city. In the 70s of the 20th century, he worked as a contract doctor in Uganda. Thanks to the collected materials, he wrote more than 20 scientific papers, defended the diploma of Doctor of Medical Sciences. He was the organizer of “Salidarnasci”. In addition to scientific works on medicine, he wrote books of memoirs: “From the Royal Ridge of Disna through Slupsk to Wroclaw”. Wroclaw, 2008., 356 p., ” Belated apovest” Wroclaw. 2010, 253 p. Thanks to the Postavsky publishing house “Sumezha” in 2015, the first part of the first book titled “Disna in the 1930s and 1940s” was published in the Belarusian language, translated by local historian Vladislav Leskovsky.
Eugeniusz Zabella was born in 1920. The first years of his life were spent in Vilnius. In 1926, his parents moved to Disna, so his childhood and youth were spent in this city.
From 1934 to 1939 he studied at the Disen Gymnasium. He showed an outstanding ability to study. By nature, he had a talent for drawing, especially graphic works turned out well. Actively participated in the issue of the magazine “Our glos”, in the student self-government of the gymnasium. The beginning of the war in 1939 found him in the final class of the gymnasium. He did not want to study in a Soviet school, and began his career as a secretary in the coperativ, then on the railway. In 1944, he was mobilized into the 2nd Army of the Polish Army, took part in combat operations with the Nazis. In 1947, he entered the Medical Faculty of the University of Poznań. After his graduation, he continued to study at the medical academy in order to further study science. But by the decision of the Warsaw Pact countries, he was mobilized into the army as a military doctor, which crossed out his life plans. His career is marked by numerous state awards. In 1977, after retiring, he began to study the past of the places where he spent his childhood and youth. In 1996, he took part in the international scientific and practical conference “Disney Readings”. The result was the writing of the fundamental book “Disna-Fortress over the Dvina”, which was published in 1998. This publication is still the most thorough publication about the history of the city. The second book is “Berezvech – in the arms of God and the Devil”. The life path of our fellow countryman ended in Bydgoszcz in 2010.
This is a well-known Polish-Belarusian local historian, historian, naturalist and teacher, researcher of Naddwinya.
He was born on April 29, 1887 in the village of Mnishchizna, Rechitsa uyezd, Minsk province. His father, Magnus Gedemann – is a Danish German. By profession, an engineer-surveyor, meliorator came to the Russian Empire, where he carried out reclamation work in the Belarusian Polesie. Her mother, Jadwiga Andreewska – is a Polish woman from Naddwinje. Otan graduated from the Gomel Gymnasium. He studied at the Kiev University at the Faculty of History and Philology, before graduating from which he was expelled for participating in the revolutionary movement.
Since 1922, he worked as a teacher and lived in Braslav and Druj. From the end of 1933 until his death on May 16, 1937, he lived in Vilnius. He collected materials on the history of the Braslav region and Disna region. He studied the development of cities with Magdeburg law, the development of trade, crafts, the social structure and property relations of the population in the Belarusian cities of the Middle Naddvinya, forest crafts and waterways in Belarus of the XVII-XVIII centuries, the history of Belovezhskaya Pushcha. Over the last seven years of his short life, he wrote and published 8 thorough monographs: “the history of Braslav County” (1930), “Disna and Druja – Magdeburg cities” (1934), “Old Forests and Waters” (1934), “Count Manutsy”(1935), “Glubokoe”(1935), “Braslav-Disna testaments of the XVIII – XVIII centuries as historical sources” (1935), “Valerian schools of the Luzhetsky PR fathers” (1937), “The History of Belovezhskaya Pushcha before the division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (in the period before 1798)”, published after the author’s death in 1939.
On February 16, 2012, a memorial plaque in honor of the hero of the day was installed on the building of the Braslav Museum of Local Lore.
There was even an Otan Gedeman street in Glubokoe. Now there is no such street, but it would be worth making sure that it still appears on the map of the city.
Born on July 16, 1949 in d.Manyakovo, Miorsky district. After graduating from the Disen High School in 1968, he entered the Belarusian department of the Philological Faculty of the Mogilev State Pedagogical Institute and four years later became a researcher at the Department of Lexicology and Lexicography of the Yakub Kolas Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus in Minsk.
In 1985, M. Krivko defended his PhD thesis “Evaluative names of persons in the dialects of the Miorsky district of the Vitebsk region”. He actively participated in the creation of a 2-volume academic edition of the “Russian-Belarusian Dictionary”. He participated in the preparation of fundamental collective works, such as the “Belarusian-Russian Dictionary”, the five-volume “Explanatory Dictionary of the Belarusian Language” in six books, and the five-volume “Lexical Atlas of Belarusian Folk Dialects”. Russian “Russian-Belarusian Dictionary for the Military”, “an Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Literary Language”, is a co-author and one of the scientific editors of the “Russian-Belarusian Dictionary for the Military”. For the great contribution made to the creation of this publication, M.N.Krivko became a laureate of the National Academy Award (1997).
About 250 scientific, popular science and encyclopedic publications on lexicology, lexicography, speech culture, onomastics, dialectology, history of linguistics and others came from his pen. Over the decades of creative work, a card file containing 378 thousand cards of words and phraseological units was created. On the basis of it, a multi-volume “Dictionary of Disneyland” is being prepared for publication, which will contain approximately 70 thousand words and phraseological units.
In 1997, Nikolai Nilovich was awarded the academic title of leading researcher. His scientific works and his personality are known and appreciated not only in his native Belarus, but also among the scientific community of Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland and other countries.